Microbiology Questions

1. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
Two examples of prokaryotic microbes are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Salmonella typhimurium. They cause gonorrhea and typhoid fever, respectively. On the contrary, Candida albicans and Borrelia burgdorferi are examples of non prokaryotic cells. They cause vaginitis and lyme disease, respectively (Arms, 1987).

2. Flagella Intelligent Design or Evolutionist
According to the Intelligent Design Community, the flagella is not a product of evolution, rather it is made from something else, from a natural process. It possesses the quality known as  irreducible complexity . According to Behe, in order to say that a thing has irreducible complexity, it must be a single system composed of several well-matched, interacting parts that contribute to the basic function, wherein the removal of any one of the parts causes the system to effectively cease functioning (Miller, 2006). On the other hand, the evolutionist community believes that flagella evolves from a certain structure. It is proposed that the flagella came from a secretory system based on the SMC pore-forming complex. A proto-flagellar filament grew right next to it to become part of the protein-secreting structure. Then, an ion pump emerged accidentally, which is believed to finally contribute to the flagellas structure and motility (Musgrave, 2000).

3. DNA to mRNA to Protein

4. Parameciums Adaptive Mechanism
Human cells may die in fresh water. It is due to the fact that when a cell is submerged in a solution with low tonicity like the freshwater, water is drawn inside through osmosis. The cells will continue to swell until it can no longer hold the water within resulting to rupture or lysis of the cells. On the other hand, the paramecium has an adaptive mechanism allowing the release of excess water within it. The contractile vacuoles of the paramecium excrete excess water that has moved in from its hypotonic environment. Fluid is collected through the canals most of the salts are reabsorbed before the vacuole contracts and expels the fluid. Every 4-8 minutes, the vacuoles eject a volume of water equivalent to the volume of the entire cell (Arms, 1987).

5. Kingdom Monera and the Three Domain System
Kingdom Monera is a classification that consists of most living things with prokaryotic cells organization. It also includes the bacteria, blue green algae, and the archaebacteria. However, this classification became obsolete due to the proposal of the Three Domain System by Carl Woese. His study of the ribosomal DNA led him to the conclusion that life can be divided into three domains Bacteria and Archaea (the two domains are derived from Monera), and Eukaryota. The Three Domain System is derived from a proposal that living organisms must be based on their genetic relationship rather than their morphological similarities (Torotora, 2004).

1. Direct Microscopy versus Plate Count
If one one will check which of the two methods will show greater results, it would be direct microscopy. Direct microscopy counts not only the viable microorganisms but also the dead ones. On the other hand, plate count only shows the number of viable microorganisms, meaning the live ones. Therefore, it is safe to state that direct microscopy gives greater results than plate count (Tortora, 2004).

2. Aerobic respiration versus Fermentation
Organisms will grow faster with aerobic respiration rather than with fermentation. It is a fact that energy is needed in any kind of metabolism and development, which is produced by mitochondria in the form of ATP. Aerobic respiration produces more ATP than fermentation (36 ATP for aerobic respiration and 4 ATP for fermentation) therefore, aerobic respiration will sustain body metabolism and growth better than fermentation (Tortora, 2004).

4. Eutrophication and the role of microbes
Eutrophication is the process by which a body of water acquires a high concentration of nutrients, especially phosphates and nitrates. The microorganisms also affect the amount of phosphorus and nitrates released in the water. The sediment bacteria has a role of storing and releasing phosphorus and phosphate as well as producing refractory, organic phosphorus compounds. These contribute to the increase in nutrients, stimulating the occurrence of algal bloom, which then hastens the eutrophication process. As the algae die and decompose, high levels of organic matter and decomposing organisms deplete the water of available oxygen, causing the death of other organisms, such as fish. Eutrophication is a natural, slow-aging process for a water body, but human activity greatly speeds up the process (Gachter, 2004).

6. Prion Theory
The Prion Theory of Stanley Prusiner postulates that prions are novel infectious agents that are composed largely, if not entirely, of abnormally folded host-encoded prion proteins. At first, scientists did not believe the theory because it is impossible for a simple protein to cause a disease. Proteins are not indestructible they are among the most fragile biological molecules. Genetic material is much closer to indestructible because it needs to maintain information without error. Aside from that, there is zero probability that two mutations will support each other in creating genetic diseases. So, there could not be any more than one mutation in the whole field of scrapies-like diseases across species and all ( Prions ).

7. Devolution of microbes
Some microorganisms that cause diseases, such as syphilis, have become less virulent compared to its previous forms. They become less virulent for easy transmission and survival. Becoming less virulent also means that the microorganism will produce fewer or late onset of symptoms. This enables the host to think that he or she is not infected therefore causing him or her to engage in activities such as sex, which facilitates transmission. The late onset of symptoms results to delayed treatment allowing the bacteria to survive longer and spread faster (Zuk, 2008).

1. Antibiotics misuse
Antibiotics aid in treating infection but they may be harmful if they are misused. If they are frequently used to treat disorders outside of their indications, antibiotics will become less potent in treating the infections they are intended for. It may destroy the natural flora of the beneficial bacteria in the body because antibiotics do not discriminate. These beneficial bacteria do not cause a disease if they are confined within that area. However, if they are wiped out, another opportunistic bacteria may take over, which may cause an infection or a disease (Kaufmann, 2003).

3. Phage Therapy
Phage therapy may be the answer to multi-drug resistant bacteria in hospitals. However, it is selectively toxic because the therapy has a narrow host range and has susceptibility in killing its host cell. Aside from that, the immune system of the host quickly eliminates the phage that results to increased frequency on its usage (Tortora, 2004).

4. Tetanus and Rabies Eradication
Rabies eradication is not feasible because several factors affect the rate of eradication programs. Rabies has an extensive, varied animal reservoir of the virus and the inability to eliminate these reservoirs through an available technology. Elimination of human rabies in the urban area is possible but the cost and benefits must be considered first (Ogun, 2009). At the same time, complete eradication of tetanus is also not possible because tetanus spores are widespread. They are found in dirt and in the stools of people and animals, and can survive and be transmitted without human contact ( Immunization , 2010).

6. Polymerase high error rate for viral survival
RNA polymerase enzymes are found in all living organisms, even the viruses. The high error rate of polymerase among viruses enables them to survive and adapt when exposed to the internal milieu of the body. Like many organisms, the virus has the ability to duplicate up to the point of reaching their error catastrophe, wherein the virus die or become extinct. However, during the process of their replication, there is an increase in the viruss biodiversity and it ruins the hosts ability to recognize the virus on subsequent infection. The more mutation it undergoes with high error rate, the more it will lose its identity which enables them to become unrecognized by the immune system, enabling them to survive and increase in number (Tortora, 2004).

7. Legionnaires Disease
Legionnaires disease is a multisystem illness that usually includes pneumonia and is caused by gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila. The microorganism is transmitted through inhalation of the bacteria and is transmitted via aerosol devices such as hot tubs and showers, and cooling towers. The disease infects the lungs primarily however, other organs may be involved. Early symptoms would include malaise, myalgias, heaadache,and dry cough. The patient develops increasing pulmonary symptoms, including productive cough, dyspnea, and chest pain. Patients are usually febrile, and body temperature may reach or exceed 39.4 degrees Celsius. Diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms are common. In severe cases, multiorgan involvement and failure may follow (Brunner  Suddarth, 2008). As of now, the reported cases of Legionnaires Disease in Victoria, Australia jumped from 23 to 40. An outbreak of the disease was reported in Doncaster causing the death of three people this year (McArthur, 2010).


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