The demand to understand aggression over the years has continued to intensify as it remains the central cause for broken families and relationships, societal conflicts and most importantly the major cause of incarceration for people in all age groups. Though some scholars have concluded that biological causes of aggression, the ability to address it by changing things in the environment at different levels of growth and development makes it to be more psychological.  However, it is the findings from many scholars that men are more aggressive than women which that has resulted to a more heated debate.  Joel et al (2010) found that women suffered about 65 of the total domestic violence.  Aggression is any action or behavior by members of the same community that is intended to instill pain or cause harm to a specified target for instance murder, domestic violence, manslaughter, and aggravated assault.  It from this consideration that this evaluation intrinsically analyzes aggression and why men are more aggressive compared to women.
Biological explanations

Variation in libido levels
According to Yvonne et al (2010), an individuals actions can be traced from his respective genetic constitutions of chemicals that command them.  In this case, aggression arises from stimulation of these chemicals and their relation to respective environments. Biologically, mens higher levels of aggression can be understood from two different perspectives. First the psychodynamic theory by Sigmund Freud considers behavior as a derivative and motivated by sexual and libido energies.  Aggression is therefore a libido representation as exemplified by the Oedipus complex.  With mens libido being relatively higher compared to women as Rhiannon ands Crisp (2010) explain, their aggressiveness is equally higher.  At childhood level, a boy of about five years develops strong sexual desires to his mother after realization that she is the provider of food.  Notably, this innate desire to associate with the mother makes the boy to develop and display aggressive behavior towards the father who is considered an immediate rival. For the girls, they seek to associate more with their fathers from penis envy before they are able to resolve the conflict.  Though Yvonne et al (2010) differ with Society for Neuroscience (2007) on libido extent in causing aggressive behavior, they emphasize that boys often take longer and their aggression is evident from a broader perspective (in school and community) compared to girls.  Report by Sigelman and Rider (2008) indicate that boys and girls exhibit aggression in about 10 and 6 of their varied social behaviors respectively.

Evolutionary explanations
Buss (2005) consideration presents aggression as a factor of an individuals chemical constitution and heredity effects.  Over the years different genes are passed down through generations to facilitate their survival in the community.  Similar to non-human organisms where males fight for mating preferences and food, men equally seek to control their dominance in the community and institutions.  Following the male dominance in most of the top executive positions, their aggression is projected at protecting themselves, their progenies and even relatives an aspect that soon turns into a cycle with only one family or region being in  leadership or management.  Notably, this consideration has however received major criticism as emerging scholars cite environmental factors as the main cause of aggression.
Neurotransmitter chemicals differences in men and women determine the levels of aggression in them.  Society for Neuroscience (2007) indicates that serotonin, a major neurotransmitter messenger, in ordinary levels as it mostly happens with women, have a calming effect.  However, men generally have a major deficiency of serotonin which has been linked to greater aggression levels.  However, these results appear to contradict previous findings by Garandeau and Cillessen (2006) which indicated that serotonin causes aggression when in higher levels.  . Yvonne et al (2010) findings are further supported by Buss (2005) who indicates that serotonin is used in treating aggressive behavior.
Unlike other causes of aggression which appear to be controversial in causing aggression in people, high levels of the testosterone (male sex hormone) in men compared to women is a major cause of their aggressive behavior.  Rhiannon ands Crisp (2010) explain that in a jail with males of violent crimes, their levels of testosterone was found to be higher compared to those without criminal record.  Unlike women, mens testosterone levels easily rise at slightest provocation to make them easily get involved in different crimes.  Therefore, though testosterone among men is generally high compared to women, it requires an effective precursor situation for one to be involved in aggression activity.

Psychological underpinnings
Social learning
In his view which appears to partially support biological causes of aggression, South and Georgina (2007) postulate that psychological considerations have more weight.  Naturally, people are subjected to differing environments which mould how they react to various situations.   According to Albert Banduras social learning theory, when people are subjected to aggressive environments, they internalize and latter practice related actions (Hines and Saudino, 2003).  In his experiment with children on aggressive and non-aggressive dolls, Bandura found that related aggression and non-aggressiveness was effectively replicated.  However, why are men more aggressive than women From a cultural perspective, South and Georgina (2007) argues that men are expected to be handy and therefore often subject themselves to key aggressive events.  For instance, more boys often prefer hostile computer games as girls prefer working with dolls. South and Georgina (2007) adds that as men grow up, they often seek to relate with more aggressive systems as they consider them to be useful in defending themselves and their families.  For instance, men will always seek to build up their boy muscles, train in defense skills and also watch hostile media which could easily result to aggression.  As indicated earlier, internalization of these violent actions creates a series of constant feedbacks reflected in their behavior as aggression.  

Life difficulties and stressful conditions
While it is generally agreeable that both men and women at a given time face difficult situations in life, Campbell (2006) and Ansara and Hindin (2009) explain that social settings make the former to be highly susceptible to stress.  Though the nature of social organization in the community is fast changing, men still bear the largest burden of providing their family with basic and luxurious needs.  Most of them either result to stealing or even robbery with violence to meet their expectations.  In his theory of development, Eric Erickson argued that people go through different stages of development in their lives.  To effectively go through adolescence and early adulthood, men are required to gather the necessary confidence that prepares them for latter life challenges (Leigh and Louise, 2010).  With the fast developing world, more men often result to aggression in-order to reflect the expected superiority and gather the necessary resources.

In their view, Gilbert and Daffern (2010) argue that more aggression does not necessarily result from difficulties and stressful conditions, but the models employed to address them.  How do men respond to stress and difficult situations Gilbert and Daffern (2010) report that most men often seek to address their stresses by turning to drugs.  For instance, use of alcohol and hard drugs often reduce their reasoning abilities a consideration that leads to conflict with their friends and back in their homes.  In the year 2007, 40 of men in the United States used alcohol with the number increasing up to 50 depending with the nature of stress (Finger et al, 2010).  However, it is worth noting that though use of drugs is initially driven by stressful conditions, it turns out to be addictive and may ultimately lead to violence even in normal situations.

Peer pressure in the society
Scholars over the years argue that peer pressure is one of the strongest forces that dictate the actions of most people especially during adolescence and early adulthood.  In his theory of psychosocial development, Eric Erickson indicated that most adolescents are in the process of searching the correct identity in the community (Hines and Saudino, 2003).  Gilbert and Daffern (2010) concurred with this view by indicating that once they get respective peer groups, they participate in all activities which often involve violence, robbery with violence and even murder.  Why then does peer influence appear to be stronger in men compared to women From an early age, girls are understood to be at a greater risk in the community compared to boys.  As a result, they are constantly watched by the family and the community which results to a more open peer group selection and their actions.  In his study on the effects of after school sports programs, Campbell (2006) argues that most parents were more concerned with their daughters compared to boys as they feared them from being raped or getting to wrong peers. However, by leaving boys out, Joel et al (2010) indicate that they were left to the wild peers and ultimately got involved in aggressive behaviors.      

Aggression in the society has created a strong need for measures to address it and reduce related negative effects.  Though proponents of biological causes of aggression are indeed correct in their argument, it is the social environment which has greater effect in causing aggression.  As Leigh and Louise (2010) explain, even the biological causes still require the correct social environment for aggression to be manifested.  For instance, though men have higher testosterone levels compared to women, they do not always result to aggression until the correct environment such as insults is available.  Therefore, should aggression be considered social and alterable by changing things in the society

From the definition of aggression, the notion of intent points at the strong social basement and possibility of addressing the causative basement. Joel et al (2010) argue that the learning environment can effectively be modified and guided to create positive development and ultimately eliminate consideration for aggression.  Through regulation of the learning environment for boys through monitoring and replacing hostile encounters such as violent games would effectively reduce chances of possible aggressions (Ansara and Hindin, 2009). By modifying and altering this learning environment, internalization of the hostile actions would not occur and its ultimate feedback in form of aggression would equally not be manifested.  It is perhaps from this consideration that out of school sports programs in the United States have attracted great support as both parents and government seek to occupy children especially boys with activities that are more productive and constructive such as sports.

In families, greater aggression by men as Rhiannon and Crisp (2010) concluded in their publication, can effectively be addressed by evaluating the causative factors.  For instance, most stressing conditions that result to aggression at the family setup are economic based.  By creating a stronger economy that supports better lives in the community and more supportive policies, stress as a cause of aggression would be greatly reduced.  However, for this mechanism to work, it is critical that government create a strong partnership with families and communities at the grassroots.

To concur with Finger et al (2010) view, people who result to aggression following major addiction to drugs such as alcohol should be subjected to counseling to make them view life positively.  Having eliminated the stressful condition as indicated earlier, the overall environment should be effectively prepared to support reduction of aggression.  For example, the family should be taught how to handle stressful conditions.  Finger et al (20100 further argues that aggression often occur as men see their situations from a less diverse perspective.  Through counseling, people suffering from aggression would further come across other people with more serious problems and mechanisms to manage respective situations that lead to aggression.  This would be a perfect model of stress management and ultimate mechanism of addressing it.

The understanding that people are subjected to peer-pressure influence at one time or another in life should be used in designing home and family settings.  Campbell (2006) and McEllistrem and (2004) argue that cases like murder and robbery with violence could greatly be reduced by safekeeping of equipments such as guns.  This consideration would indeed work perfectly if it is considered holistically by reducing chances of possible negative peers and greater supervision especially for the adolescents.  Adults with records of aggression should also be denied access to guns and monitored to facilitate effective recovery.    

From the above discussion, this essay supports the thesis statement, though some scholars have emphasized on biological causes of aggression, the ability to address it by changing things in the environment at different levels of growth and development makes it to be more psychological. It came out from the discussion that biological explanations of aggression consider men to be more aggressive largely from an evolutionary and body chemicals such as testosterone which is generally higher in them compared to women.  However, biological perspective failed to effectively consider the ability of addressing the issue through alteration of the social environment.  As a result, aggression was concluded to be social and therefore an aspect that can be addressed by modifying the social learning environment. From an early age, both boys and girls should be carefully guided to avoid involvement with negative peers that ultimately result to aggression. It is therefore critical that the society focus on social causes of aggression and ultimately seek mechanisms in the social environment to address it.  Finally, greater cooperation between respective administrative authorities with the community to facilitate their well being especially economically should be initiated.


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