A Research on Lupus

The disease called Lupus is a type of ailment that mainly damages and harms the immune system of an individual (What is Lupus, n.d.). In the United States, the Lupus disease vastly affects about one point five million Americans, wherein the majority or almost 90 of the total diagnosed patients with such ailment are mainly females (What is Lupus, n.d.).

In most normal circumstances, the immune system of an individual works by making antibodies and immunity cells, which are special substances that battle numerous germs and infections (Seward, 2007). However, in the case of Lupus disease, the patients immune system acts oddly and can not clearly distinguish the difference between the bodys normal and healthy cells and germs that could create infection (What is Lupus, n.d.).

In this regard, the topic about the Lupus disease is chosen mainly because of its strange characteristics and odd effects to the human immune system. More so, Lupus and its epidemiology are deemed as essential and interesting topics to be further explored and studied. With the fact that this type of disease mostly affects female patients and their immune system, this topic is chosen to present a deeper understanding with regard to the treatments and diagnostic techniques on Lupus.

History of the Lupus Disease
Though the disease called Lupus is more popularly known as a modern twentieth century ailment, its early descriptions could be traced back to the days of Paracelcus (1500AD) and Hippocrates (400BC). The terminology called Lupus has coined in the mid 1850s by two of the most famous Parisian physicians namely Clausit and Cazenave (Field, n.d.). They are known as the first physicians to make a clear description about facial rash and skin ulceration that look like a bite from a wolf (Field, n.d.). Some people think that this is where the word Lupus (Latin for wolf) originated (Hochberg, 2003). In relatively the same era in Vienna, a dermatologist named Ferdinand von Hebra released the first image of butterfly shaped facial rash that is also believed to be the basis of the term Lupus (Hochberg, 2003).
Sir William Osler, on the other hand, first mentioned the word Lupus in 1903, when he diagnosed twenty young ladies with evident skin rashes and chest twinge that created inflammation in the linings of the lung called pleurisy (Field, n.d.). More so, these female patients are diagnosed of having kidney disease, brain involvement and strokes, which are all deemed to be fatal that caused the death of 18 patients in two years from time of presentation (Field, n.d.).

Knowing the severity of Lupus, this event has created wide development throughout the medical world (Field, n.d.). Drug therapy has been introduced more especially the use of antibiotics from the early 1930s that prevented further infections that served as the most common cause of death, back then (Field, n.d.). Furthermore, the use of steroids has been introduced in the late 1940s as another effective medicine for most Lupus patients, more especially those who have relative inflammatory joint diseases (Field, n.d.).

Anatomy of Tissues and Organs Affected in Lupus
The Lupus Disease can cause inflammation and problem in various tissues as well as blood vessels anywhere in the body. In most common cases, Lupus mainly affects and harms the kidneys (A Patients Guide to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, n.d.). Usually, Kidney tissues, blood and numerous membranes are swollen, as the large deposit of chemicals in the body form in the kidney. These occurrences are enough to make vast changes in the kidneys, which prevent it from functioning the way it should be. (A Patients Guide to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, n.d.).

The effects of Lupus in various tissues and organs could also be seen in the inflammation of lining, covering, and muscles of the heart. Human heart could be affected even without typical or any heart symptoms (A Patients Guide to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, n.d.). In most common instances, Lupus creates bumps and swelling in the endocardium, which is the lining membrane of chambers and valves of the heart.

Furthermore, Lupus also causes inflammation and problem in the skin. Rashes in the skin are common for most Lupus patients, which could appear anywhere. However, the most common location of these rashes is concentrated across the cheeks and nose.
Alterations on the Anatomy of Lupus Patients

Lupus patients normally have rashes that are red, itchy, and painful, which can be seen and usually show up in almost every part of the body. Most common is the butterfly rash that appears on the face of the patient. More so, Lupus also causes hair loss among its patients. Most Lupus patients tend to be highly sensitive to sunlight, wherein even minimal exposure could cause severe and painful skin rash.

Muscles and Bones
Lupus patients experience inflammation or joint pain, wherein any joint could be badly affected. The most common spots are the wrists, hands and knee. Although the pain caused by inflammation could come and go, it should always be closely monitored and treated. Furthermore, most Lupus Patients also experience sudden muscle tissue pain, weakness and swelling.

Nervous System
Most Lupus patients experience moderate to severe type of headaches, abnormal blood vessels in the head, seizures and numerous problems in the nervous system. More so, most Lupus patients develop serious troubles with memory and concentration, severe agitation, emotional problems, and hallucinations.

The Symptoms of the Lupus Disease
The symptoms of Lupus are normally chronic, which may vary depending on the patients experience and condition (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus,  n.d.). The following are most common symptoms of lupus
Malar rash - a rash that usually look like a butterfly, which is commonly situated on the bridge of the nose and the cheeks.
Discoid rash  commonly appears on the head, arms, chest and back.
Inflammation of the joints
High Fever
Hair loss
Sudden sunlight sensitivity
Kidney dysfunction
Weight loss
Low platelet count

The Diagnostic Techniques Used to Detect Lupus
Diagnosing Lupus is not an easy task. Due to the ambiguity of the symptoms which every patient has, diagnosing Lupus became more complicated. Hence, there is no single or particular test that could completely diagnose lupus (SLE or Lupus, n.d.). Diagnostic techniques mainly include
Blood testing  Primarily set to identify certain antibodies present in most individuals with lupus.

Complement test  mainly used to identify low levels of complement in the blood related with lupus).
Blood and urine testing  specifically designed to evaluate the condition of kidney.

X-rays - a special diagnostic test that primarily utilizes invisible electromagnetic energy beams to know the condition of internal tissues, bones, and organs.

Possible Treatment for Lupus
As of the moment, there is no particular treatment that could cure Lupus (Lahita and Phillips, 2004). Specific treatment may vary depending on the physicians decision and patients condition.  The following are greatly considered in designing a treatment plan for Lupus
The age, medical history and overall health condition of the patient.

Severity of the condition
The forbearance of the patient to endure medications, therapies and procedures.
Evaluation of the specific organs that are badly affected.

In the end, treatment plans for Lupus may not be successful when guidelines and procedures are given without thorough examination of the patients case and condition (Wallace, 2008).


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