Feedback Inhibition

Feedback inhibition also known as end product inhibition refers to an important mechanism in the biosynthetic pathways involving enzymes. The synthesis of molecules such as amino acids and pyrimidines in the human body is tightly regulated and most of the steps controlled enzymatically. Usually, in feedback inhibition, the end products in biosynthetic pathways inhibit the first enzymatic step and hence controlling the synthesis of the end products themselves (Khanna, 289).

The first enzyme in the pathway which is inhibited is known as the allosteric enzyme. This mechanism takes advantage of the preexisting enzymes already in the cells to control various biosynthetic processes. An interesting example of allosteric or feedback inhibition is what happens in the biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotide bases which are important components of nucleic acids. The allosteric enzyme involved in the first step catalysis in the synthesis of cytidine triphosphate (CTP) is aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) which catalyzes the condensation of carbamoyl phosphate and aspartate to produce orthophosphate and form N-carbamoylaspartate (Berg, Tymoczko  Stryer, 402). The CTP which is the final product of pyrimidine synthesis acts as an inhibitor to the enzyme ATCase. It is observed that the increased accumulation of CTP greatly reduces the speed (Vmax) of the enzyme ACTase (Berg, Tymoczko  Stryer, 402).

The process of feedback inhibition such as that which takes place in CTP biosynthesis is crucial in the synthesis of nucleic acids, the molecules that regulate all the life processes. In the absence of the CTP, the rate of ATCase is faster but this rate decreases when more CTP accumulates. This process is critical as it ensures that more CTP molecules are sent in the biosynthetic pathway to produce more and more pyrimidine bases. The more bases synthesized, the faster the growth process of organisms and the faster the wound healing process or DNA repair.


The food that we eat cannot be assimilated into the body in the same manner that we ingest it. It needs to be broken down through various processes aided by chemicals and anatomical structures in the human body. This paper discusses the process of digestion in the alimentary tract until it is absorbed into the body.

The food that is ingested needs to go through several processes in the body before it is assimilated into the body. These processes occur in the alimentary tract which is a long structure beginning from the mouth to the anus. There are also other important chemicals, hormones and digestive juices which are involved in this whole process. These are found in specific portions of the tract and each food is digested or broken down in specific region. Therefore, the breakdown of food is either mechanical or chemically carried out. The end result is the division of the food into very small components or sizes that can pass through into the cells (Insel, Turner and Ross, 2004).

Everyone has at one time embarked on a journey in their lifetime. In addition to this, you hope to have a smooth trip and reach your destination safely. Herbert the hamburger has prepared to go through a very long and tortuous journey of his life. Everything is in place and he only hopes to have a safe trip. The main purpose of this trip is to deliver very vital documents that are needed to a company known as Body Builders. If these documents do not reach their destination, the company dies. These documents includes Fats, Carbohydrates, Proteins and Minerals.

The journey begins in the mouth where Herbert goes through some rough machines known as the teeth. This breaks it down into small forms through mastication. The document known as carbohydrate starts to be processed in the mouth and it involves a good friend known as saliva who is the boss in this department. Saliva does this with the help of amylase. This breaks it down into simple forms. From the mouth, permission is anted to move to the next level. To do this, Herbert is rolled into a bolus by the tongue and thrown at the back of the mouth. The epiglottis prevents Herbert from going through the trachea which is a wrong route. Herbert moves down in a smooth wave known as peristalsis into the esophagus until it reaches the gate of another department known as the stomach. This gate is known as the cardiac sphincter (Insel, Turner and Ross, 2004).

In the stomach, enzymes are also involved in the digestion process. Protein digesting enzymes are known as proteases. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. The bonds existing between them are broken down by hydrochloric acid from gastric wall. This is followed by breakdown of amino acids by the enzyme pepsin (Insel, Turner and Ross, 2004).

The food enters the small intestines through the pyloric sphincter. In the small intestine, pancrease produces amylase which further breaks carbohydrates to lactose, sucrose and maltose. These are broken down by lactase, sucrase and maltase enzymes respectively. These three are converted to an important form known as glucose which is absorbed via the villi on the walls of the intestines and finally find its way into blood circulation. Glucose is necessary for cell metabolism and function. However, the amount of glucose is regulated by the liver with the help of hormones. Too much glucose (hyperglycemia) is transformed into glycogen and stored in the liver through the help of insulin. In cases where glucose levels are low in the blood (hypoglycemia), the reverse happens i.e. conversion of glycogen to glucose with the help of the hormone glucagon. In cases where there is no glycogen, the hormone glucagons initiate formation of glucose from amino acids or fats. This process is known as gluconeogenesis (Insel, Turner and Ross, 2004).

The digestion of fats is with the help of enzymes known as lipases. Fats are complex molecules and should be turned into small molecules. This happens with the help of lipase enzyme from the pancrease and the end result is glycerol and fatty acid molecules. In addition to this process, bile from liver enters through the bile duct and emulsifies the fat. This makes it easy for the enzyme (lipase) to break down the fats starting from the surface. Storage of the bile usually occurs in the gall bladder. The body absorbs fats through the villi that cover the small intestines. The structure of the villus is such that it has capillaries and lacteals (lymph vessels). Fatty acids and glycerol enter into the lacteals into lymphatic system and finally bloodstream. Fatty acids find its way into adipose cells for storage or as source of energy (Insel, Turner and Ross, 2004).  

Protein digestion also continues in the small intestines in duodenum. The pancrease produces protease enzyme namely trypsin. In addition, chymotrypsin is also secreted. It works in a similar manner as pepsin. The end result of breakdown of protein by trypsin is amino acids. This is done through hydrolysis with insertion of water molecule between the bonds of amino acids. This helps in separation of the bonds that hold the amino acids together. The amino acids can thus pass through the intestinal wall into bloodstream. Their importance is in the repair of structures of the body. The waste products and undigested material move to the large intestines where water is re-absorbed. From there, it moves to the cecum and out through the anus (Insel, Turner and Ross, 2004).

Post-exercise recovery periods for the cardiopulmonary

The cardiopulmonary system is made up of the heart and the lungs which are both located in the thoracic cavity of the body. The two organs are central to the circulatory and the respiratory systems respectively. Exercise entails exertion of the body to achieve a physical benefit. The cardiovascular system performs several vital functions in the body during exercise. It delivers oxygen to the muscles, transports the heat generated from the core to the skin, transports glucose and essential nutrients to the active tissues, pumps the deoxygenated blood back to the lungs for oxygenation and also transports hormones such as adrenaline. During exercise drastic changes occur in the body which places a high demand for the cardiovascular system to step its functional rate. For instance, the more waste products created during exercise require to be removed, more energy supply is required and the excess heat produced removed. The cardiopulmonary system must therefore regulate all these processes to ensure physiological sanity in the body.

 For the body to regain strength for more exercise, a period of rest is required during which the cardiopulmonary system and the muscles undergo recovery. Therefore, for the cardiopulmonary and cardiovascular systems to recover, a period of reduced exercise must accompany the exercise. During this period, several changes occur driven by essential parameters. The central organ in these systems is the heart which do not benefit from a recovery program that removes any stress on it above the sedentary level.

The most important element of post-exercise cardiopulmonary recovery is the fluid level of the body which largely comprise of water. This is explained by the fact that body exercises result in the generation of heat in which the body has a mechanism of getting rid of the excess heat through sweat. The implication of this is reduction in the volume of fluids present in the blood. At the same time, the blood vessels undergo vasodilation to permit loss of excess heat through the skin. The resultant effect is the lessened ability of the blood to carry out oxygen transportation and distribution of glucose and other nutrients throughout the body. Following the loss of body fluids to the level of 2-3, it may require several hours for the cardiopulmonary system to attain its optimal fluid level (, 2010).

In addition the recovery of the depleted minerals essential for the operations of the cardiovascular system may take even a longer period but this will depend on the amount of the minerals used up during the exercise. Therefore, the post-exercise recovery period of the cardiopulmonary system is largely influenced by the recovery of the fluid level of the blood and also the restoration of used up energy reserves during the exercise. Following exercise, the cardiopulmonary system must undergo several adaptations for it to accommodate the changes brought about by the exercise.

 The most vital ones include changes in the heart size, the heart rate, stoke volume, cardiac output, blood flow, blood pressure, and blood volume. During the recovery and adaptation period, the heart volume and mass increases whereas the cardiac muscle undergoes hypertrophy. The most affected is the left ventricle as well as the thickness of the myocardial wall. The resting heart rate for a previously sedentary person reduces in addition to changes in the stroke volume. Stroke volume increase as a recovery event is attributed to an elevated end-diastolic filling as a result of reduced heart rate and increase in blood plasma and so blood volume. Blood pressure is another aspect which is altered during post-exercise recovery of the cardiopulmonary system. The systolic and diastolic pressure is likely to decrease during sub maximal exercise and at rest (, n.d).

The post-exercise recovery of the cardiopulmonary system is critical for facilitating further exercise. The benefits anticipated from exercises therefore can only be accrued if the requirements for the recovery process are readily available in the body. The most important factors which regulate the rate at which the recovery process takes place are the body fluid levels and the supply of glucose and other nutrients. Therefore, intake of large volumes of water is highly recommended after exercise to elevate the blood volume. In addition, several adaptations are therefore required to ensure that the changes occurring during the recovery process function to the benefits of the body.

Global Warming

Executive summary
Human activities are behind the current climatic changes in the world as a result of global warming. These activities have been necessitated by the need to create more wealth to sustain the increasing world population. The need to expand the agricultural production has resulted in large scale deforestation to create more land for farming and grazing activities. Greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere have come from power generating activities, industrial processes and exhaust fumes from vehicles and air planes. These gases such as carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and methane have contributed to the greenhouse effect which is the phenomenon behind global warming.  

The implications of global warming are many and some of them are severe. Most of the food chains that have been established naturally between species have been broken by the effects of global warming. To cope with these impacts, most species have been forced to move from their original ecological occupation to other ecologically favorable areas. The interrelation between different species in a given ecological niche therefore has become disrupted by the threats posed by global warming. Global warming is also related to the depletion of abiotic resources due to their overexploitation. These include fossil fuels, metals and minerals whose utilization is closely interrelated. There are various economic, social, ethical and political issues that are associated with global climatic change. These issues largely address the aspects of equity and responsibility. Different cultures such as the traditional livestock farmers in Africa have felt the pinch of global warming. Solutions to global warming must be practical and also require strong political will to implement. Policy makers have a big role to play since the nature of these policies and the will to implement them forms the basis of having solutions to global warming.

1.0 Introduction
In the past century, the Earth has experienced a drastic change in the climatic patterns which has been influenced by a new force that did not influence it before. This is because temperatures on a global scale are increasing at a faster rate than ever which cannot be explained by the natural processes. This force is humanity. Global warming is an environmental issue which has currently caused massive concern over the sustainability of the ecosystem and life of every living thing on earth. Global warming is the unusual rapid increase in the average temperature of the air near the surface of the earth and the oceans over the past century and its projected continuation. The causes of global warming have been attributed to the emission of greenhouse gases from the burning of fossil fuels. The major concern is that the rapid industrial growth accompanied by non-structured methods through which humans have adopted to sustain themselves have resulted in environmentally harmful processes that are eroding the ecosystem at an alarming rate.

The early warning signs of this environmental issue are many and can be divided into two. There are those which have a direct manifestation and are long-term and there are also those which foreshadow the effects that are imminent following widespread continued warming. The direct manifestations include the melting of glaciers, unusual warm weather and heat waves, warming of the Arctic and Antarctic, ocean warming, rise in sea level and coastal flooding. On the other hand, the events foreshadowing these impacts include bleaching of the coral reef, heavy snowfalls, downpours and flooding, rapid spread of disease, range shifts of plants and animals and changes in their populations, widespread severe droughts and earlier spring arrival (1). The objective of this paper is to discuss the details of this global issue and the possible solutions which can alleviate it.

2.0 Causes of Global Warming
2.1 Greenhouse gases
Scientists have unraveled several causes of global warming which include certain greenhouse gases. These gases are released through human activities such as combustion of fossil fuels, industrial processes, during production of electricity and also during refrigeration. Chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons as the major gases used in refrigeration are powerful greenhouse gases which occur in lower concentrations in the atmosphere. However, their potency is even greater than that of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide for which a large percentage is released from burning of fossil fuels such as oil, kerosene, gas and petrol is a major greenhouse gas that causes global warming. In addition, agricultural activities have resulted in the release of nitrous oxide from fertilizers. Methane is also released from agricultural activities especially from the digestive systems of grazing animals and also from landfills (2). These green house gases are responsible for the phenomenon called greenhouse effect in which the main contributor is water vapor.

2.2 The greenhouse effect
The light from the sun is absorbed by the surface of the earth resulting in the warming of the earth whereas the rest of the light is radiated at a longer wavelength back to the atmosphere. The greenhouse gases present in the atmosphere absorb some of this long wave radiant energy before it is lost to space. The resultant effect is the warming of the atmosphere. Therefore, these gases act like a mirror in the sense that they reflect some of the radiant energy that would be lost in space back to the Earth giving rise to the warming of the atmosphere. Greenhouse effect therefore refers to this aspect of reflecting back of heat energy by the atmosphere. 36-70 of greenhouse effect is caused by water vapor, 9-26 by carbon dioxide, 4-9 by methane, and 3-7 by ozone (3).

2.3 Deforestation
The current rate of deforestation in most parts of the world is a worrying trend since it has increased the severity of global warming. The aspect of carbon dioxide release into the atmosphere is directly related to deforestation. Trees and in deed all plants absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and utilize it in the manufacture of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats for their own survival. In this respect, plants can be seen as contributing to the reduction of CO2 present in the atmosphere. Following deforestation, the cut down trees are either burnt as a source of fuel therefore releasing more CO2 or left to decay in which the Co2 stored in them enters the atmosphere. The overall effect of such human activities is therefore increase in the concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which is directly connected to global warming (4).

3.0 Interrelatedness of species
As global warming is increasing at an alarming rate, human activities carry the bulk of the blame as many animals and plants struggle on how to survive the devastating impacts. However, humans are also largely affected by this phenomenon as the effects grow cumulatively. Global warming has disrupted the food chains upon which nature has established to facilitate the survival of different species in a specific ecological niche. This has as a result interfered with many aspects of interdependence of various species. The rise in sea levels as a result of global warming causes the water to cover the lowland islands. The plants, animals and people inhabiting these areas are therefore faced with a disaster. Most plants die due to much water and this translates into a loss of food source for the people and animals as well as losing their habitat.

As a result the animals may eventually die of hunger. Humans therefore lose two sources of food that is animal food and plant food in addition to losing their homes. This arouses the need for migration from the area to look for new habitat with food. The ultimate outcome of these events is that the original food chain is broken which directly affects the interrelatedness of species in the area. The situation in aquatic life is the similar in that the warming of oceans has destroyed many species of algae due to the rising water temperatures. Algae being a producer in the food chain are a source of food for many consumers such as small fish, some whales, and crabs. Consequently, humans are dependent on these consumers for food. The death of algae means that less food will be available to the consumers and therefore less food for humans and other animals in the sea (5).

Various characteristics in the plant and animal kingdoms have been observed which point to the unnatural climate change. For instance the red foxes have been forced to spread northwards and have encroached the territory originally occupied by their cousins from the arctic. Polar beers of today compared to those of about 20 years ago are much thinner and less healthy. On the other hand, some plants have been noted to thrive in environments in which their growth was formally limited due to the changes in temperatures that have provided heat, more water and sunlight. Butterflies overwhelmed by temperatures in the south are now moving northwards where temperatures are cooler (6).

4.0 Interrelatedness of abiotic resources
Abiotic resources entails all those non-living physical and chemical components that are found in a given geographical or ecological environment The interrelatedness of abiotic resources can be explained from the understanding that the current escalation in global warming is as a result of increased utilization of the available nonrenewable resources such as metals, fossil fuels and various minerals for the production of energy for example electricity and heat. These abiotic resources are interrelated to a considerable extent and hence their continued exploitation may result to their depletion. The elevated usage of these resources has been triggered to a large extent by the modern industrial society whose operations are dependent on a triad of metals, hydrocarbons and electricity which are intricately connected.

This interrelation is such that each of the three resources can only be accessed in the presence of the other two. For instance, global scale generation of electricity is only possible through the use of hydrocarbons for which the same dependence on hydrocarbons is true for the smelting of various metals. The culmination of this has been the imminent depletion of the better types of ores while the remaining types require modern machinery for their processing and more hydrocarbons for their smelting. On the other hand, extraction and processing of hydrocarbons requires the incorporation of metals and electricity in such activities. While these abiotic resources are equally important, electricity emerges to be the most fragile so that its failure signals an early warning of trouble in the other two resources. The production of steel demands heavy utilization of hydrocarbons especially coke from coal.

The high global demand for steel is due to the need to construct large and powerful bridges, machinery, automobiles, skyscrapers and tools in the modern industrial society. Oil emanates from fossils but its production by the oil producing countries has declined due to the depletion of these fossils. As a result more resources and energy must go into getting lower quality and less accessible oil from the ground therefore leaving less money for the production of electricity and metals. This depicts the close relationship between these valuable abiotic resources whose utilization is directly related to global warming (7).    

5.0 Anthropogenic influences on Global Warming
Anthropogenic factors are the human activities which influence the environmental conditions. Global warming have been aggravated by several human activities mainly deforestation, transport and electric power production.

5.1 Deforestation
This refers to the massive scale clearing of the Earths forests which in most cases cause deterioration of the land quality. The current rate of destruction of the rainforests which form an important cooling band in the equator is considered to be one of the major causes of global warming. The increasing world population has caused the need for more land for cultivation in order to ensure adequate food production in addition to the need for more grazing land and settlement.  Human activities such as logging for paper products and wood have resulted in massive destruction of many rain forests. Current research has confirmed that deforestation is the cause of up to 25 emission level of the gases that trap heat or the greenhouse gases. The major forests whose destruction has had the greatest influence on global warming are found in Congo, Brazil and Indonesia (8).

5.2 Transport
Transport as a major human activity has contributed significantly to the current increase in global warming due to the gases that are released from vehicles and airplanes. This anthropogenic influence is rampant in developed countries where vehicles constitute a bigger source than industry. Each year, an estimated 300 million tonnes of exhaust toxic gases are released from cars into the atmosphere. Most of these gases from petrol engines contain hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, traces of sulphur dioxide and solid particles. Exhaust gases from diesel engines contain a lot of particles than the content of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. These vehicle emissions significantly contribute to the phenomenon of greenhouse effect. On the other hand, air transport has over the years become a common means of transport since it is fast and convenient especially in the business world. A single jet plane has the capacity to emit harmful gases as much as 7,000 vehicles over the same period of time. These emissions pose even a greater danger since they are released into the higher atmosphere therefore increasing the possibility of damaging the stratospheric ozone layer (9).  

5.3 Power production
This anthropogenic influence on global warming is also a highly sensitive issue since it emanates from the need for humans to generate power to run various operations that are vital to economic development. Electric power production plants release large amounts of gases which contribute to the greenhouse effects and also affect human health. The main source of these emissions is the burning of coal which results in the release of far more carbon dioxide than natural gas or oil. In addition to CO2, other gases from the burning of coal in power stations include carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and dust particles which contain heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium and lead. The acid grain phenomenon is also largely caused by the large amounts of sulphur dioxide released from coal burning during power generation activities (9).

6.0 Issues associated with Global warming
6.1 Economic issues
Global warming has elicited world wide economic issues which need to be fully addressed since they have a direct impact on the economies of every country whether in the developed world or in the developing world. The pertinent issues revolve around the costs and benefits attached to global warming, how these costs and benefits will be distributed among all the affected groups of people or countries and also the response to this environmental issue. Such economic considerations are considered paramount due to the fact the greenhouse gases have spread in the whole atmosphere so that all the world regions are exposed to the implications of global warming. However, these economic considerations face the challenge of equitable distribution of costs and benefits since the warming impacts are unevenly distributed across countries, regions and across industries.

For instance, parts of Western Europe and North America have started experiencing early springs and late autumns which has greatly affected the tourism industry which is largely dependent on the attraction of snow and glaciers for tourists and skiers. In the Southern Europe, desertification has been rapidly spreading whereas severe hurricanes have occasionally caused loss of lives and great destruction in the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern US. The fishing industry in many countries such as Bangladesh have been badly affect by the frequent sea-level rise which prevents fishing activities (10).
Despite such losses, there are those who are beneficiaries of global warming especially in the temperate agricultural areas which now experience prolonged growing seasons. This has allowed more agricultural activities thus generating more income though with other costs emanating from increased pests and changes in the farming methods. The costs of global warming are likely to extend over several decades or centuries due to the increase in the degree of its socioeconomic impacts which is also likely to extend over the cause of time. Therefore, in estimating the cost of global warming, it is prudent to consider these factors such that the costs are distributed not only over the current generation but also over several generations to come.

6.2 Social issues
Global warming as an international environmental concern is inseparable with the many pressing social impacts touching on politics, economics and social stratification. For instance, the diverse policies geared towards alleviating the effects of climate change may cause inequalities in different ways. The greatest concern on inequality is that nations and individuals who may have had minimal contribution to global warming might be disadvantaged by the policies adopted in response to global warming. There are also health implications of global warming in which the poor are the most exposed since they have lesser capacity to implement responses such as adaptation.

6.3 Ethical issues
These issues include the areas of allocation of global emissions among nations so that a fair distribution of the costs and benefits is achieved. In addition, the responsibility of the damage caused by global warming ought to be carried in a manner not to burden those who have had minimal or no contribution to the climate change. The issue therefore is ethical since it requires that it be addressed with the interest of people at heart rather than focusing on self interest. The sense of justice and ethics of people have to be considered and incorporated in making decisions on how global warming ought to be handled (11).

6.4 Political
The political issues of global warming have been attracted by the concern over the many asymmetries in the costs and benefits distributions both among countries in the world and in the domestic policies of individual countries. The Kyoto Protocol is the major international agreement whose aim is to fight global warming. Two Kyoto Protocol Annex I countries with large reserves of fossil fuels that is US and Australia have not ratified this agreement. In addition Saudi Arabia has been highly opposed to the Protocol though it is not among the Annex I countries (10). This correlation is further confirmed by the economic policies of Canada who has played a leadership role in the whole fight against global warming. However, a close scrutiny of its Kyoto Protocol ratification process brought in to light the interregional conflicts which can be attributed to its dependence on fossil fuel reserves to drive its economic agendas.

The principal policies adopted as a response to global warming issue are mitigation, business-as-usual, and adaptation. Mitigation policies captures the various efforts by governments, industries, organizations and individuals in bringing down the net rate of greenhouse gas emissions including the aspect of carbon sequestration and other measures of trapping these gases. Such policies rely on practical approaches such as moving away from relying on energy sources from fossil fuels in power generation and transport activities, increasing energy efficiency, switching methods of production and products, and reducing deforestation and increasing reforestation.

Business as usual refers to the agreement of operating business activities and running the government policies along the present paths. However, this response to global warming contains loopholes since disagreements have arisen over whether it is business-as-usual when some countries decline the greenhouse gas emissions intensity. Greenhouse gas emissions intensity is the units of emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents divided by the units obtained from the economic activity for example the GDP. Decline such a policy by some countries results in elevated levels of emissions and concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. On the other hand, adaptation entails various measures which would suppress the second order socio-economic effects such as changing the farming methods, building dykes, improving the systems for sending early warning signals on imminent storms, and inoculation against diseases like malaria (10).

7.0 How Cultures are affected by Global warming
As global warming escalates, the impacts are already being felt across the globe. Various traditional cultures are likely to be hard hit by the current trend of climate change. For instance, the disappearing Ice Parks in arctic regions due to the rising temperatures is likely to badly affect the world life in those regions. The polar bears for instance who rely on the sea ice to hunt seals as the major source of food will be deprived of this means. The natives in these areas also depend on the seals and walrus for food and therefore the melting sea ice is a threat to their livelihood. Traditional livestock farmers in Africa have tried to cope with the devastating effects of climate change through rearing different livestock species, embracing economic diversity and moving temporary to areas with greener pastures. However, the worsening situation in climate change will make it more difficult to apply these mechanisms as the available grazing land becomes diminished and the population increases (12).

8.0 Possible solutions and their drawbacks
One of the solutions is the use of alternative sources of fuel in running of cars and airplane engines. Such fuels include compressed natural gas and electricity. However, compressed natural gas has a very low volumetric density so that it would require large car-tanks so as to have a reasonable driving range. Use of electric power to drive car engines has limitations in that it does not facilitate high speed and also the bulk of batteries which have to be installed in the cars. Collective fiscal measures such as taxation are a possible solution. Fossil fuel use for instance can be reduced by imposing a carbon tax on fuel consumption. This is in the effort of reducing Co2 emissions with additional benefits such as increased energy efficiency due to the resultant higher fuel prices. In addition, the revenue generated can be utilized to offset the various damages brought about by the use of fossil fuels or used in intensive research for solutions to environmental challenges. However, some drawbacks include socio-economic problems in that the producers of high cost energy will suffer the most (13).

9.0 Conclusion
Global warming is a highly sensitive environmental issue which concerns every nation in the world. The impacts on the climate being witnessed all over the world have been largely caused by human activities who have adopted various methods of wealth generation with most of these strategies lacking the aspect of environmental consideration. Overcoming global warming is a course worth pursuing by all and calls for collective responsibility of all the policy makers so as to alleviate the survival threat posed by climate change on all the species.    


Cholera is a disease that causes diarrhea and vomiting effect, caused by a bacterium Vibrio Cholerae. This bacterium enters human body through contaminated drinking water or food, affecting the intestines through which it enters the blood stream. It produces toxics that forces water to exude from the blood in large amounts. This water is excreted as diarrhea and vomiting.

Different human populations are affected by cholera infections at differently. The rate of infection depends on individuals blood group. Blood group O is adversely affected followed by B, and A respectively with AB being the most resistant of them all. All patients who show the signs should be tested and administered with the necessary treatment.

 According to statistics, most parts of the world are attacked by the disease seasonally. For example, by early 2009 the Sub Saharan region had recorded over 128,500 cholera infections while over 4,000 patients died. In Iraq, about 22 deaths were recorded with 4,569 patients reported positive in 2007 when there was water shortage coupled with the infection outbreak. Vietnam reported 2,490 patients in 2008.

The usual signs include excessive diarrhea and vomiting which results in abdominal pain and dehydration. Most of the signs show within the less than five days after the infection.

Cholera is diagnosed through the usual laboratory test procedures after taking stool sample. The most useful indicator is the series of signs after infection occurs. This makes it easier for treatment to start before the lab test results are out.

 The recovery time depends on the time taken before administration of treatment and treatment method. Extreme cases of dehydration may often die due to irreversible effect of water loss in the body.
Prevention is better than cure. Protection against cholera is through keeping proper sanitation, clean and safe drinking water as well as clean cooking environment. More so, sterilization and proper waste disposal from infected patient is important. Sewage treatment is also paramount, (Baldwin, 1999). Warning information should also be issued to the public for better prevention especially if an outbreak is sensed. Vaccines are available which can be used to denature or kill various strains of Vibrio cholerae.
The most effective treatment method is the Oral Rehydration Therapy, ORT, which effectively and safely replace dehydrated water from the patients body quickly. Homemade solutions like sugar, fruit juice and table salts may be used. In case the patients has severe problem they may be subjected to intravenous rehydration procedures.

Cholera pandemic results from biological attack by Vibrio cholerae O1 and was first recorded in 1817-1923. Vibrio cholerae originates from the classical biotype serogroup strains. Cholera had earlier been reported to result from El Tor Biotype. The 7th pandemic tests showed some correlation between the 0139 serogroup and El Tor strains related to cholera.

7 cholera pandemics are already recorded. According to research cholera pandemics 1-6 were caused by an attack by classical biotype of Vibrio Cholerae. Vibrio Cholerae has been studied over time due to it different strains that cause cholera at diverse regions. Researchers developed the need to understand the seventh pandemic El Tor and O139 evolution, (Dziejman, 2001).  

The hypothesis was the O139 strains evolved from the 7th pandemic El Tor isolates (3, 13). Research data established supported the hypothesis. According the research it is proven that nonpathogenic El and strains of classical biotype, closely related to El Tor, originate from other lineage. Thus the 7th cholera pandemic was caused by the El Tor type of Vibro Cholerae and not the classical strains. This information is vital for generation of necessary treatment. The information also gives insight to further research towards the control of reoccurrence of such pandemics.

My choice of this microbiology article was driven by the desire to know how Cholera affects humans and its cause. The text was very interesting and informative. In fact I would recommend all the microbiology scholars to read it.    

Ebola virus

Ebola virus constitutes some of the major viruses that have the capacity to cause viral hemorrhagic fever syndrome. Ebola virus belongs to the family Filoviridae. Ebola virus has been responsible for quite a number of well documented outbreaks of deadly human hemorrhagic fever. It is important to look at as well as understand the nature of the virus and the disease it causes because it has the ability of wiping out a large percentage of the global population within a short time. This paper will employ a qualitative analysis approach to describe the methods of transfer of Ebola virus, the symptoms, treatment and vaccine. Various materials that will be used in this research include published work, legitimate website material, and peer reviewed journals.

It is clear that human beings since time immemorial have been subjected to a wide range of viral diseases. Strauss and Strauss (2008) states that quite a number of these viruses are believed to have evolved along with mankind and have been in existence since the inception of human life. Other viruses were acquired from animals that man came into contact with. These viruses jumped from animal sources to human beings and became human viruses that infect only people. Human beings turned out to be the vertebrate reservoir for these viruses. Some viruses however, even though their original source was animals infect human beings peripherally and human beings do not serve as their vertebrate reservoirs (Strauss and Strauss, 2008). These include Ebola virus, rabies virus, and eastern equine encephalitis among many others. Other viruses have entered the human race more recently. As human beings increase in numbers, they impinge on wildlife more and more, and alterations in the environment result in closer interactions between animals and human beings. This leads to an increased number of zoonotic viruses that result in epidemics of deadly human illnesses (Strauss and Strauss, 2008).

Ebola virus first came into limelight as the causal agent of two major epidemics of viral hemorrhagic fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo, along Ebola River as well as in Sudan three decades ago (Mahy and Regenmortel, 2009). Ebola virus is a very deadly virus that leads to adverse symptoms such as extremely high fever and excessive internal and external bleeding. It results in the death of approximately 90 of the people it infects (Mahy and Regenmortel, 2009). It is one of those viruses that have the ability of causing hemorrhagic fever. Cases of Ebola virus infection are mainly reported in Africa, especially in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Uganda, Gabon, Sudan and the Ivory Coast (MedicineNet, 2010). Other continents such as North America are believed to be free from Ebola virus. Ebola virus is a hazard to everyone, who is exposed to it, including health care workers. Ebola virus was named after the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ebola River, where its outbreak was first reported. Ebola virus belongs to the family Filoviridae. Filoviridae is a family of RNA viruses. Ebola virus is subdivided into five subgroups referred to as Ebola-Zaire, Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Ivory Coast, Ebola-Bundibugyo, and Ebola-Reston, which mainly affects non-human primates (Mahy and Regenmortel, 2009).

Transmission of Ebola virus among human beings has not been sustained. In spite of considerable advances in the comprehension of Ebola, researchers and scientists have not yet discovered the natural source or the factors that lead to its re-appearance in new outbreaks in human beings. Even though non-human primates are believed to be the source of infection for human beings, they are not the natural reservoir. Human beings are not reservoirs of the virus also, and infection with the virus is incidental (MedicineNet, 2010). The appearance of the virus in human beings at the start of an outbreak remains a mystery. Nonetheless, it has been posited that human beings are infected with the virus through contact with an infected animal. It is believed that Ebola virus is transmitted through body fluids. Infection with an Ebola virus subjects a patient to devastating symptoms. These symptoms are so severe that they lead to shock and death within a short period of time. Specific treatment of the disease has not yet been discovered. However, patients are given supportive therapy which includes balancing the patients body fluids and electrolytes (MedicineNet, 2010).

Ebola virus
Ebola virus is the causative agent for Ebola hemorrhagic fever often abbreviated as Ebola HF. This disease is a deadly disease both in human beings and non-human primates such as chimpanzees, monkeys, and gorillas. This disease appears sporadically, and the first case of the disease was reported in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Strauss and Strauss, 2008). Confirmed outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever have been reported in a number of African countries, after the DRC, including Uganda, the Ivory Coast, Gabon, and the republic of Congo. However, according to Strauss and Strauss (2008), cases of the disease have never been reported in some continents, especially North America. Ebola hemorrhagic fever usually emerges in sporadic outbreaks and spread rapidly within healthcare setting an aspect referred to as amplification.

Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an acute infection. Soon after the first person has been infected with the virus, it can be rapidly transmitted through a number of ways. Human beings are exposed to Ebola virus from direct contact with various body secretions such as saliva, semen, mucus, and blood in addition to tissues of an infected person (Rollin, 1998). Sexual contact can also lead to transmission of the disease. Ebola virus is rapidly spread among family members and friends due to the fact that they are exposed to direct contact with body secretions of an infected person when carrying himher to a medical facility. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009) assert that humans can also be exposed to Ebola virus infection through contact with contaminated materials and objects such as needles. The other mode of transmission besides direct transmission is nasocomial transmission. This is the mode of transmission that occurs within a medical care setting. Nasocomial transmission however, occurs after an outbreak. Nasocomial transmission occurs through direct contact in addition to contact with contaminated objects. In African medical care facilities, mask, gloves and gowns are rarely used while taking care of patients. Failure to wear protective clothing by health care workers, when taking care of patients suffering from Ebola hemorrhagic fever, exposes them to the virus. Re-using of infected needles and syringes exposes a large number of people to the risk of Ebola virus (MedicineNet, 2010).

Ebola hemorrhagic fever has got an incubation period that ranges from two to twenty one days. The onset of disease is sudden and is characterized by a number of symptoms. These symptoms include fever, headache, sore throat, general body weakness, muscular aches and joint pain (Rollin, 1998). These symptoms are then followed by diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and stomachache. Other symptoms associated with this disease include rashes, reddening of the eyes, excessive internal and external hemorrhage, hiccups, anorexia, asthenia, genital swelling, delirium, seizures, coma, depression, and reddening of the palate (World Health Organization, 2008).

Diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a challenging task due to the fact that early symptoms of the disease such as headache, reddening of the eyes, skin rash, and nausea are non specific to the virus. These symptoms also occur in patients suffering from other illnesses that affect people more frequently (World Health Organization, 2008). Nevertheless, if an individual is diagnosed with as many symptoms of Ebola hemorrhagic fever as possible heshe should be isolated to minimize cases of transmission. There are various laboratory procedures that can be used to diagnose Ebola hemorrhagic fever in a patient. These include Antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing, virus isolation, Immunoglobulin M ELISA, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These procedures can be used to diagnose Ebola hemorrhagic fever in a few days of the start of symptoms.
Immunohistochemistry testing, virus isolation and PCR are used to diagnose Ebola hemorrhagic fever retrospectively after the death of a patient (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009). World Health Organization (2008) states that tests on samples expose health care workers to intense biohazard danger, and therefore they should be carried out under maximum biological control conditions.

Strauss and Strauss (2008) make it clear that standard treatment of Ebola hemorrhagic fever has not yet been developed. However, patients are given supportive therapy in the course of treatment. Supportive therapy comprises of balancing the body fluids in addition to electrolytes of a patient. Maintenance of blood pressure and oxygen status in addition treating patients for any additional complication are some of the supportive therapy strategies employed in treatment of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Blood transfusion is carried out to counteract excessive loss of blood (World Health Organization, 2008). Prevention of Ebola, not only in Africa, but also in other continents where Ebola hemorrhagic fever cases have been reported presents a very challenging task. This is mainly due to the fact that the identity and the location of the natural reservoir of the virus currently remains a mystery. Only a few preventative measures have been devised so far. However, no specific vaccine for the disease has been developed. Several potential vaccines are currently being tested, but it may take years before they are released (World Health Organization, 2008). World Health Organization (2008) states that in cases of an outbreak the current socioeconomic factors usually favor the spread of an epidemic both in homes and medical care facilities. It is vital therefore, that healthcare workers possess the capability of recognizing cases of the disease if they happen to occur. They should also have the capacity to carry out diagnostic procedures, and be prepared to use realistic viral hemorrhagic fever isolation precautions and protective nursing techniques. These techniques comprise of wearing protecting clothing such as masks, gloves and gowns in addition to infection control measures such as total sterilization of apparatus, as well as isolation of infected persons from contact with patients who are not protected (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009).

Ebola virus constitutes some of the major viruses that have the capacity to cause viral hemorrhagic fever syndrome. Ebola virus first came into lime light as the causal agent of two major epidemics of viral hemorrhagic fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan three decades ago. Transmission of Ebola virus among human beings has not been sustained. The natural source or the factors that lead to its re-appearance in new outbreaks in human beings have not yet been discovered. Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an acute infection and soon after the first person has been infected with the virus it can be rapidly transmitted through direct contact with various body secretions such as saliva, semen, mucus, and blood in addition to tissues of an infected person. Sexual contact can also lead to transmission of the disease. Direct contact with contaminated equipments can also transmit the infections. Patients suffering from Ebola hemorrhagic fever present with a number of symptoms including headaches, excessive internal and external bleeding, muscular aches, gastrointestinal complications, and anorexia among many others.  Standard treatment of Ebola hemorrhagic fever has not yet been developed. However, supportive therapies which include maintenance of electrolyte and body fluid balance, treatment of additional complications, and maintenance of blood pressure and oxygen status, are provided to patients. Vaccine for Ebola hemorrhagic fever has not been developed.


The demand to understand aggression over the years has continued to intensify as it remains the central cause for broken families and relationships, societal conflicts and most importantly the major cause of incarceration for people in all age groups. Though some scholars have concluded that biological causes of aggression, the ability to address it by changing things in the environment at different levels of growth and development makes it to be more psychological.  However, it is the findings from many scholars that men are more aggressive than women which that has resulted to a more heated debate.  Joel et al (2010) found that women suffered about 65 of the total domestic violence.  Aggression is any action or behavior by members of the same community that is intended to instill pain or cause harm to a specified target for instance murder, domestic violence, manslaughter, and aggravated assault.  It from this consideration that this evaluation intrinsically analyzes aggression and why men are more aggressive compared to women.
Biological explanations

Variation in libido levels
According to Yvonne et al (2010), an individuals actions can be traced from his respective genetic constitutions of chemicals that command them.  In this case, aggression arises from stimulation of these chemicals and their relation to respective environments. Biologically, mens higher levels of aggression can be understood from two different perspectives. First the psychodynamic theory by Sigmund Freud considers behavior as a derivative and motivated by sexual and libido energies.  Aggression is therefore a libido representation as exemplified by the Oedipus complex.  With mens libido being relatively higher compared to women as Rhiannon ands Crisp (2010) explain, their aggressiveness is equally higher.  At childhood level, a boy of about five years develops strong sexual desires to his mother after realization that she is the provider of food.  Notably, this innate desire to associate with the mother makes the boy to develop and display aggressive behavior towards the father who is considered an immediate rival. For the girls, they seek to associate more with their fathers from penis envy before they are able to resolve the conflict.  Though Yvonne et al (2010) differ with Society for Neuroscience (2007) on libido extent in causing aggressive behavior, they emphasize that boys often take longer and their aggression is evident from a broader perspective (in school and community) compared to girls.  Report by Sigelman and Rider (2008) indicate that boys and girls exhibit aggression in about 10 and 6 of their varied social behaviors respectively.

Evolutionary explanations
Buss (2005) consideration presents aggression as a factor of an individuals chemical constitution and heredity effects.  Over the years different genes are passed down through generations to facilitate their survival in the community.  Similar to non-human organisms where males fight for mating preferences and food, men equally seek to control their dominance in the community and institutions.  Following the male dominance in most of the top executive positions, their aggression is projected at protecting themselves, their progenies and even relatives an aspect that soon turns into a cycle with only one family or region being in  leadership or management.  Notably, this consideration has however received major criticism as emerging scholars cite environmental factors as the main cause of aggression.
Neurotransmitter chemicals differences in men and women determine the levels of aggression in them.  Society for Neuroscience (2007) indicates that serotonin, a major neurotransmitter messenger, in ordinary levels as it mostly happens with women, have a calming effect.  However, men generally have a major deficiency of serotonin which has been linked to greater aggression levels.  However, these results appear to contradict previous findings by Garandeau and Cillessen (2006) which indicated that serotonin causes aggression when in higher levels.  . Yvonne et al (2010) findings are further supported by Buss (2005) who indicates that serotonin is used in treating aggressive behavior.
Unlike other causes of aggression which appear to be controversial in causing aggression in people, high levels of the testosterone (male sex hormone) in men compared to women is a major cause of their aggressive behavior.  Rhiannon ands Crisp (2010) explain that in a jail with males of violent crimes, their levels of testosterone was found to be higher compared to those without criminal record.  Unlike women, mens testosterone levels easily rise at slightest provocation to make them easily get involved in different crimes.  Therefore, though testosterone among men is generally high compared to women, it requires an effective precursor situation for one to be involved in aggression activity.

Psychological underpinnings
Social learning
In his view which appears to partially support biological causes of aggression, South and Georgina (2007) postulate that psychological considerations have more weight.  Naturally, people are subjected to differing environments which mould how they react to various situations.   According to Albert Banduras social learning theory, when people are subjected to aggressive environments, they internalize and latter practice related actions (Hines and Saudino, 2003).  In his experiment with children on aggressive and non-aggressive dolls, Bandura found that related aggression and non-aggressiveness was effectively replicated.  However, why are men more aggressive than women From a cultural perspective, South and Georgina (2007) argues that men are expected to be handy and therefore often subject themselves to key aggressive events.  For instance, more boys often prefer hostile computer games as girls prefer working with dolls. South and Georgina (2007) adds that as men grow up, they often seek to relate with more aggressive systems as they consider them to be useful in defending themselves and their families.  For instance, men will always seek to build up their boy muscles, train in defense skills and also watch hostile media which could easily result to aggression.  As indicated earlier, internalization of these violent actions creates a series of constant feedbacks reflected in their behavior as aggression.  

Life difficulties and stressful conditions
While it is generally agreeable that both men and women at a given time face difficult situations in life, Campbell (2006) and Ansara and Hindin (2009) explain that social settings make the former to be highly susceptible to stress.  Though the nature of social organization in the community is fast changing, men still bear the largest burden of providing their family with basic and luxurious needs.  Most of them either result to stealing or even robbery with violence to meet their expectations.  In his theory of development, Eric Erickson argued that people go through different stages of development in their lives.  To effectively go through adolescence and early adulthood, men are required to gather the necessary confidence that prepares them for latter life challenges (Leigh and Louise, 2010).  With the fast developing world, more men often result to aggression in-order to reflect the expected superiority and gather the necessary resources.

In their view, Gilbert and Daffern (2010) argue that more aggression does not necessarily result from difficulties and stressful conditions, but the models employed to address them.  How do men respond to stress and difficult situations Gilbert and Daffern (2010) report that most men often seek to address their stresses by turning to drugs.  For instance, use of alcohol and hard drugs often reduce their reasoning abilities a consideration that leads to conflict with their friends and back in their homes.  In the year 2007, 40 of men in the United States used alcohol with the number increasing up to 50 depending with the nature of stress (Finger et al, 2010).  However, it is worth noting that though use of drugs is initially driven by stressful conditions, it turns out to be addictive and may ultimately lead to violence even in normal situations.

Peer pressure in the society
Scholars over the years argue that peer pressure is one of the strongest forces that dictate the actions of most people especially during adolescence and early adulthood.  In his theory of psychosocial development, Eric Erickson indicated that most adolescents are in the process of searching the correct identity in the community (Hines and Saudino, 2003).  Gilbert and Daffern (2010) concurred with this view by indicating that once they get respective peer groups, they participate in all activities which often involve violence, robbery with violence and even murder.  Why then does peer influence appear to be stronger in men compared to women From an early age, girls are understood to be at a greater risk in the community compared to boys.  As a result, they are constantly watched by the family and the community which results to a more open peer group selection and their actions.  In his study on the effects of after school sports programs, Campbell (2006) argues that most parents were more concerned with their daughters compared to boys as they feared them from being raped or getting to wrong peers. However, by leaving boys out, Joel et al (2010) indicate that they were left to the wild peers and ultimately got involved in aggressive behaviors.      

Aggression in the society has created a strong need for measures to address it and reduce related negative effects.  Though proponents of biological causes of aggression are indeed correct in their argument, it is the social environment which has greater effect in causing aggression.  As Leigh and Louise (2010) explain, even the biological causes still require the correct social environment for aggression to be manifested.  For instance, though men have higher testosterone levels compared to women, they do not always result to aggression until the correct environment such as insults is available.  Therefore, should aggression be considered social and alterable by changing things in the society

From the definition of aggression, the notion of intent points at the strong social basement and possibility of addressing the causative basement. Joel et al (2010) argue that the learning environment can effectively be modified and guided to create positive development and ultimately eliminate consideration for aggression.  Through regulation of the learning environment for boys through monitoring and replacing hostile encounters such as violent games would effectively reduce chances of possible aggressions (Ansara and Hindin, 2009). By modifying and altering this learning environment, internalization of the hostile actions would not occur and its ultimate feedback in form of aggression would equally not be manifested.  It is perhaps from this consideration that out of school sports programs in the United States have attracted great support as both parents and government seek to occupy children especially boys with activities that are more productive and constructive such as sports.

In families, greater aggression by men as Rhiannon and Crisp (2010) concluded in their publication, can effectively be addressed by evaluating the causative factors.  For instance, most stressing conditions that result to aggression at the family setup are economic based.  By creating a stronger economy that supports better lives in the community and more supportive policies, stress as a cause of aggression would be greatly reduced.  However, for this mechanism to work, it is critical that government create a strong partnership with families and communities at the grassroots.

To concur with Finger et al (2010) view, people who result to aggression following major addiction to drugs such as alcohol should be subjected to counseling to make them view life positively.  Having eliminated the stressful condition as indicated earlier, the overall environment should be effectively prepared to support reduction of aggression.  For example, the family should be taught how to handle stressful conditions.  Finger et al (20100 further argues that aggression often occur as men see their situations from a less diverse perspective.  Through counseling, people suffering from aggression would further come across other people with more serious problems and mechanisms to manage respective situations that lead to aggression.  This would be a perfect model of stress management and ultimate mechanism of addressing it.

The understanding that people are subjected to peer-pressure influence at one time or another in life should be used in designing home and family settings.  Campbell (2006) and McEllistrem and (2004) argue that cases like murder and robbery with violence could greatly be reduced by safekeeping of equipments such as guns.  This consideration would indeed work perfectly if it is considered holistically by reducing chances of possible negative peers and greater supervision especially for the adolescents.  Adults with records of aggression should also be denied access to guns and monitored to facilitate effective recovery.    

From the above discussion, this essay supports the thesis statement, though some scholars have emphasized on biological causes of aggression, the ability to address it by changing things in the environment at different levels of growth and development makes it to be more psychological. It came out from the discussion that biological explanations of aggression consider men to be more aggressive largely from an evolutionary and body chemicals such as testosterone which is generally higher in them compared to women.  However, biological perspective failed to effectively consider the ability of addressing the issue through alteration of the social environment.  As a result, aggression was concluded to be social and therefore an aspect that can be addressed by modifying the social learning environment. From an early age, both boys and girls should be carefully guided to avoid involvement with negative peers that ultimately result to aggression. It is therefore critical that the society focus on social causes of aggression and ultimately seek mechanisms in the social environment to address it.  Finally, greater cooperation between respective administrative authorities with the community to facilitate their well being especially economically should be initiated.

Structurally diverse natural products that cause potassium leakage trigger multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis Article Review

Biofilm formation of bacterial cells, or the ability of bacteria to aggregate in response to certain signaling factors, is a relatively new concept that gives researchers and other scientists an extra load of scientific works. These works are connected to the idea that scientific investigators find it hard to establish facts that will clearly describe the event by which bacterial species, which were traditionally regarded to be solitary in nature, will begin to form communities. Myxobacteria, streptomyces and other groups of bacteria with clinical or industrial importance have been found to form biofilms under special conditions (Lopez et al., 2009). To further investigate this issue, the researchers studied Bacillus subtilis under varying nutritional and cultural conditions. They decided to grow B. subtilis on MSgg and LB and it was discovered that B. subtilis which were grown in minimal defined medium MSgg allowed biofilm formation while cells of the same species that were grown in complex medium of LB showed no biofilm formation. Hence, researchers speculated that there might be a specific factor that is present in  MSgg which has triggered the bacterial cells to aggregate.

In order to investigate this event, the researchers exposed B. subtilis cells to a battery of compounds including polyene polyketide nystatin and filipin, and other non-specific membrane disrupting detergents (Lopez et al., 2009). Among these compounds, only nystatin was found to induce biofilm formation of B. subtilis after it was supplied to LB. The inability of the other compounds to induce biofilm formation in B. subtilis suggests that the cation leakage from the cytoplasm to the extracellular space caused by nystatin is the primary element that signals bacterial cell aggregation. The previously mentioned statement is the hypothesis of this study which was tested by subjecting the microorganism to a list of naturally occurring small molecules. More specifically, B. subtilis was exposed to amphotericin, gramicidin, surfactin, and iturin (Lopez et al., 2009). Both amphotericin and gramicidin are capable of causing cation leakage but only amphotericin has similar structural configuration with nystatin. Surfactin and iturin, on the other hand, are cyclic lipopeptides which are produced by different strains of B. subtilis. Results showed that amphotericin, gramicidin, and surfactin stimulated the production of biofilm, an event which suggests that potassium cation leakage might be the cause of the biofilm signalization. Other compounds exhibiting no cationic leakage were eventually included in the experiment for comparison purposes and it was found out that they were not capable of inducing biofilm formation.

Next, researchers decided to expand investigations on the property of nystatin and surfactin because these two elements pose intriguing concerns for the investigators., The property of surfactin of being a natural by-product of B. subtilis and the non-surfactant nature of nystatin heightened the interest of the researchers. They discovered that these two compounds activate the regulatory circuitry that controls matrix production and protein kinase C (Lopez et al., 2009). Consequently, these events lead to the lowered intracellular potassium concentration in B. subtilis and to biofilm formation. In general, it can be observed that the results are consistent with the original hypothesis.

I actually picked this article because I am really interested with biofilm formation. I find it really amusing to know that the very small microorganisms are able to physically manifest themselves to us by forming slimy biofilm formations on the surface of plastic wares or metal utensils. Furthermore, this article was chosen because I believe that it will help me gain increased understanding of the processes of microorganisms.

A Research on Lupus

The disease called Lupus is a type of ailment that mainly damages and harms the immune system of an individual (What is Lupus, n.d.). In the United States, the Lupus disease vastly affects about one point five million Americans, wherein the majority or almost 90 of the total diagnosed patients with such ailment are mainly females (What is Lupus, n.d.).

In most normal circumstances, the immune system of an individual works by making antibodies and immunity cells, which are special substances that battle numerous germs and infections (Seward, 2007). However, in the case of Lupus disease, the patients immune system acts oddly and can not clearly distinguish the difference between the bodys normal and healthy cells and germs that could create infection (What is Lupus, n.d.).

In this regard, the topic about the Lupus disease is chosen mainly because of its strange characteristics and odd effects to the human immune system. More so, Lupus and its epidemiology are deemed as essential and interesting topics to be further explored and studied. With the fact that this type of disease mostly affects female patients and their immune system, this topic is chosen to present a deeper understanding with regard to the treatments and diagnostic techniques on Lupus.

History of the Lupus Disease
Though the disease called Lupus is more popularly known as a modern twentieth century ailment, its early descriptions could be traced back to the days of Paracelcus (1500AD) and Hippocrates (400BC). The terminology called Lupus has coined in the mid 1850s by two of the most famous Parisian physicians namely Clausit and Cazenave (Field, n.d.). They are known as the first physicians to make a clear description about facial rash and skin ulceration that look like a bite from a wolf (Field, n.d.). Some people think that this is where the word Lupus (Latin for wolf) originated (Hochberg, 2003). In relatively the same era in Vienna, a dermatologist named Ferdinand von Hebra released the first image of butterfly shaped facial rash that is also believed to be the basis of the term Lupus (Hochberg, 2003).
Sir William Osler, on the other hand, first mentioned the word Lupus in 1903, when he diagnosed twenty young ladies with evident skin rashes and chest twinge that created inflammation in the linings of the lung called pleurisy (Field, n.d.). More so, these female patients are diagnosed of having kidney disease, brain involvement and strokes, which are all deemed to be fatal that caused the death of 18 patients in two years from time of presentation (Field, n.d.).

Knowing the severity of Lupus, this event has created wide development throughout the medical world (Field, n.d.). Drug therapy has been introduced more especially the use of antibiotics from the early 1930s that prevented further infections that served as the most common cause of death, back then (Field, n.d.). Furthermore, the use of steroids has been introduced in the late 1940s as another effective medicine for most Lupus patients, more especially those who have relative inflammatory joint diseases (Field, n.d.).

Anatomy of Tissues and Organs Affected in Lupus
The Lupus Disease can cause inflammation and problem in various tissues as well as blood vessels anywhere in the body. In most common cases, Lupus mainly affects and harms the kidneys (A Patients Guide to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, n.d.). Usually, Kidney tissues, blood and numerous membranes are swollen, as the large deposit of chemicals in the body form in the kidney. These occurrences are enough to make vast changes in the kidneys, which prevent it from functioning the way it should be. (A Patients Guide to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, n.d.).

The effects of Lupus in various tissues and organs could also be seen in the inflammation of lining, covering, and muscles of the heart. Human heart could be affected even without typical or any heart symptoms (A Patients Guide to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, n.d.). In most common instances, Lupus creates bumps and swelling in the endocardium, which is the lining membrane of chambers and valves of the heart.

Furthermore, Lupus also causes inflammation and problem in the skin. Rashes in the skin are common for most Lupus patients, which could appear anywhere. However, the most common location of these rashes is concentrated across the cheeks and nose.
Alterations on the Anatomy of Lupus Patients

Lupus patients normally have rashes that are red, itchy, and painful, which can be seen and usually show up in almost every part of the body. Most common is the butterfly rash that appears on the face of the patient. More so, Lupus also causes hair loss among its patients. Most Lupus patients tend to be highly sensitive to sunlight, wherein even minimal exposure could cause severe and painful skin rash.

Muscles and Bones
Lupus patients experience inflammation or joint pain, wherein any joint could be badly affected. The most common spots are the wrists, hands and knee. Although the pain caused by inflammation could come and go, it should always be closely monitored and treated. Furthermore, most Lupus Patients also experience sudden muscle tissue pain, weakness and swelling.

Nervous System
Most Lupus patients experience moderate to severe type of headaches, abnormal blood vessels in the head, seizures and numerous problems in the nervous system. More so, most Lupus patients develop serious troubles with memory and concentration, severe agitation, emotional problems, and hallucinations.

The Symptoms of the Lupus Disease
The symptoms of Lupus are normally chronic, which may vary depending on the patients experience and condition (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus,  n.d.). The following are most common symptoms of lupus
Malar rash - a rash that usually look like a butterfly, which is commonly situated on the bridge of the nose and the cheeks.
Discoid rash  commonly appears on the head, arms, chest and back.
Inflammation of the joints
High Fever
Hair loss
Sudden sunlight sensitivity
Kidney dysfunction
Weight loss
Low platelet count

The Diagnostic Techniques Used to Detect Lupus
Diagnosing Lupus is not an easy task. Due to the ambiguity of the symptoms which every patient has, diagnosing Lupus became more complicated. Hence, there is no single or particular test that could completely diagnose lupus (SLE or Lupus, n.d.). Diagnostic techniques mainly include
Blood testing  Primarily set to identify certain antibodies present in most individuals with lupus.

Complement test  mainly used to identify low levels of complement in the blood related with lupus).
Blood and urine testing  specifically designed to evaluate the condition of kidney.

X-rays - a special diagnostic test that primarily utilizes invisible electromagnetic energy beams to know the condition of internal tissues, bones, and organs.

Possible Treatment for Lupus
As of the moment, there is no particular treatment that could cure Lupus (Lahita and Phillips, 2004). Specific treatment may vary depending on the physicians decision and patients condition.  The following are greatly considered in designing a treatment plan for Lupus
The age, medical history and overall health condition of the patient.

Severity of the condition
The forbearance of the patient to endure medications, therapies and procedures.
Evaluation of the specific organs that are badly affected.

In the end, treatment plans for Lupus may not be successful when guidelines and procedures are given without thorough examination of the patients case and condition (Wallace, 2008).

Graduate Committee

Dear Graduate Committee Members,
Having recently finished my masters degree, I,  state your name , wish to apply for Ph. D.  in state the program you wish to apply to. Primarily, I intent to apply in this program since my interest lie in plant and environmental field, and I believe that this program will further hone my skills and develop my expertise in the said area.

The research of Dr. Colin Birch on Ash products from coal combustion to improve agricultural productivity in an environmentally safe manner, an inevitably interesting and relevant post-graduate topic, has specifically captured my attention. If given a chance, I would like to work with a professor who is widely-knowledgeable in the area to assist me in my academic pursuit. I plan to do a research on Plant Transmutation Employed by Ash Utility.

I was introduced to mathematics, as well as natural and physical sciences, at an early age, and it was in high school that I considered a career in this area. The desire to study the natural sciences prompted me to take degree program in college, also state in here any achievements you had. My previous research in masters degree was regeneration and sub culturing the medical plants in vitro and vivo. This interest is the primary reason I enthusiastically wish to apply for Ph. D. at this university.

I am hoping that the laboratory techniques, computer skills , language proficiency, quantitative and statistical expertise I have gained in the past years, with my sincere devotion to my academic career, albeit the complexity of the program I desire, will help me to become a better doctorate student in my desired field. With all due respect, I would gladly welcome an opportunity to become a part of this university, andor to have an interview with the professor, at his convenience, so I could share and elaborate more on my fields of expertise and knowledge. I am looking forward to hearing from you in the near future. Thank you for your consideration and attention.

Importance of DNA fingerprinting

DNA fingerprinting is a technique that involves use of DNA to identify individuals. Before it was discovered, it was difficult to solve some of the crimes in which little or no evidence had been left. Disputes such as paternity disputes were almost impossible to solve. But with the discovery of this technique, many cases have been solved and disputes settled through its help. This paper is going to look at the principles behind this technique and benefits it has brought with it.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread of molecules that are part of the cell structure which are commonly found in the nucleus of the cell. It is referred to as genetic fingerprint simply because each and every individual has different DNA except for identical twins who have the same set of DNA patterns. Each individual has a unique DNA profile just like in the case of finger prints. DNA can be extracted from the body tissues by taking samples such as body fluids, hair, saliva, tears and other body fluids or other things that contain DNA. Therefore, DNA finger printing is the process by which a subject is identified through the use of DNA (Christopher, 1991).

It is believed that each person has got a DNA profile that is unique just like finger prints. Over 99 of the 3 billion nucleotides contained in human DNA are said to be identical in all individuals. However, in every 1000 nucleotides inherited, there is a site that varies within the population which is referred to as polymorphism. Polymorphism is the one responsible in changing the length of DNA fragments that result from digestion of restriction enzymes. These fragments which result after digestion are referred to as restriction fragments length polymorphisms (Lorne, 1993). The techniques used in DNA finger printing were first discovered in 1984 by Alec J. Jeffreys, a geneticist of the University of Leicester in Britain while studying a myoglobin gene which is responsible for storage of oxygen in the muscles. He discovered that the gene is comprised of many segments which vary in composition and size from one individual to the other and that they had not particular function. He referred them as minisatelites which were found to form less than 1  of the total DNA in human beings. He went ahead to separate several of this minisatelite genes and inserted them in bacterias producing huge amounts of DNA segments (Terry, 1991).

There have been numerous researches which have been conducted in the human genetic engineering field since the first one which was conducted by Sir Alec Jeffreys.

The first step in undertaking DNA fingerprinting is to collect DNA samples from subjects. DNA sequences have been found to be in a paired helix strand form. These strands are then separated by use of different techniques such as the use of electrophoresis gel. Electrophoresis gel works on the principle of separation of DNA sequences through the use of charges. Once separation of sequences has been achieved, their images are further analyzed by the use of radio enzymes that stick to the isolated DNA strands or through the use of chemiluminescence technique. In cases where the images cannot be clearly seen, the process is repeated severally until a clearer image is obtained.    

Uses of DNA testing
According to Michael, Schmidtke  Jrg (1998), DNA finger printing has widely been used in forensic science for provision of evidence and identification. Through the use of the unique DNA composition of individuals which is found in materials belonging to them, it has been possible to generate DNA profiles for every individual. It is because of this that shocking crimes have been solved not forgetting the role that it has played in providing an insight into the history of human beings (Lorne, 1993).
This technique was first used to solve a criminal case in 1987. Since then, DNA evidence has been used in a variety of other court cases because evidence gotten from this technique has been considered as reliable because of the level of accuracy of the DNA results. Although it has been accepted as a source of evidence and a basis for convictions in courts, other individuals are opposed to its use. They query the accuracy of this technique because of the use of segments of DNA in contrast to the whole DNA strand. Despite the opposition, DNA fingerprinting has helped investigators and police to solve a lot of crimes that previously could be difficult to solve. It is through the help of this technology that cold cases with minimal evidence have been solved. This has been made possible because of the DNA data base with blood samples from offenders which have been established allowing investigators to look for DNA matches for materials that have been retrieved from crime scenes. (Christopher, 1991)
DNA finger printing has also helped solve paternity disputes and identify bodies in cases involving fatal accidents in which victims cannot be physically identified or in cases where there is mass fatality. This technique can also be of help in cases involving switching of infants during birth or when an adopted child requires hisher family medical history. Although there are usually challenges in cases involving mass fatalities, scientists have been able to extract and analyze samples regardless of the level of fragmentation and deterioration of remains (Terry, 1991).

DNA profiling has also been used in geological studies. The study of DNA structures together with differences in gene traits has made it possible to re-examine the different aspects of the history of human beings such as migration patterns making it possible to test the modern believes concerning genealogy and race. Its though this studies that scientist have been able to determine genealogical lines of ethnic groups which are considered not to be having any relationship shading light on past interaction and migration among different groups of people (Marina, 2006).

DNA change which have taken place for the last 20 years
Since its discovery, DNA finger printing has had an effect on thousands of peoples lives the world over. It continues to advance as there are numerous powerful technologies that have been discovered and continue to be discovered which have had a great impact on genetic studies. In 1978, this technology was used in studying inherent differences in Human DNA which led to the discovery of RFLP type of variation which results from altering single bases in DNA. It is through that discovery that it was discovered that there are approximately 10,000,000 different areas in which individual DNA can vary in sequence. It was again discovered that some regions in the DNA are more variable than single base regions known as minisatellites (Sergio, 1993).

It led to accidental development of DNA fingerprinting in 1984 by Sir Alec who demonstrated that a single test was capable of distinguishing every individual on earth. Sir Alec has also been able to come up with an approach to solve crossover and mutation problems among families by coming up with alternative ways of solving the problem through screening sperms. He has been able to reveal the way in which minisatellites mutate by use of abnormal recombination which has come to regulate the basic rules on how crossovers happen across human DNA and the effects it has on genetic diversity among the population (Sergio, 1993).      

Levels of protein structure and how they are affected by denaturation

Protein is a polymer that is made up of amino acids (AA) monomers that are joined together with the aid of peptide bonds. They occur naturally. Proteins are divided into different groupslevels depending on their structural composition. They include primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary and quaternary structure. Their structural composition can be destroyed if they are exposed to different changes in temperature, PH and various chemicals (Barry, p.209).

Different levels of protein structure
Primary structure this is the arrangement of amino acids in reference to different locations of disulphide bonds in the polypeptide chains. The primary structure can be said to be the basis for all other covalent bonds in the polypeptide chain. It is usually denoted by use of a three letter standard abbreviation for (AA) such as gly-gly-ser-ala which is the primary structure for polypeptides containing glycine, serine, and alanine respectively. The N terminal contains glycine while the C-terminal contains alanine (Reginald and Charles, p.79).

Secondary structure this is the arrangement of amino acids in the localized areas of a protein molecule. These folding patterns are stabilized by hydrogen bonds. The main structures in this level are alpha helix structure and anti-parallel beta-pleated sheet. Although there are different periodic conformations, alpha and beta pleated sheets are the most stable. A protein or single polypeptide can be comprised of more than one secondary structure. Alpha-helix is a clockwise spiral with planar peptide bonds and a trans conformation. The amine groups for each of the peptide bond generally run upward at the same time parallel to the helix axis. Carboxyl group generally points in the upward direction. Beta-pleated sheets are made of extensive polypeptide chains. Their neighboring chains extend anti-parallel to one another. Each of their peptide bonds is planar and trans just like the ones for alpha-helix structure. The carboxyl and amine groups of the peptide bonds lie in the same plane pointing at each other making it possible for hydrogen bonds to occur between neighboring polypeptide chains. Hydrogen bonding among carboxyl and amine groups in the same polypeptide stabilizes the helix structure (Kenneth, Enrique and Paul, p.500).

Tertiary structure this is a three dimensional-array of atoms in a polypeptide chain. In polypeptides with single conformational pattern such as alpha helix, tertiary and secondary structures may remain the same. For proteins with one polypeptide molecule, the highest structure level that it can attain is the tertiary structure. This level is mainly kept together by disulphide bonds that form among cysteine side chains through oxidation of 2 thiol groups (Reginald and Charles, p. 97).

Quaternary structure this refers to proteins that contain multiple sub-units. These proteins contain a molecular weight of more than 50,000 with 2 or more non covalently-linked monomers. Arrangements of monomers in a 3 dimensional protein make a quaternary structure. An example of a protein with quaternary structure is hemoglobin protein. The main stabilizer in the quaternary structure is the hydrophobic interaction (Kenneth, Enrique and Paul, p.500).

Protein denaturation
According to Shuryo and Wayne (p.129), this is destruction of the protein structure resulting in loss of biological activity of proteins. It is usually caused by changes in PH, temperature and chemical composition. The primary structure that is mainly held together by covalent bonds is not affected by denaturation. The secondary structure is usually affected with the proteins loosing all their regular repeating patterns and adapting a random coil pattern. In tertiary structure, it involves disruption of interaction of covalent contact among AA side chains, dipole-dipole non-covalent interactions among polar AA side chains and Van der Waals interaction among non-polar AA side chains. In Quaternary denaturation, sub-units of proteins are partially rearranged destroying the three dimensional structure. To maintain the biological activities of proteins, its advisable that optimal conditions are maintained at all times.

Natural Selection

Natural selection, according to Gulick, is the process through which heritable attributes that are beneficial or vital for survival and reproduction become a common thing in a population, whereas harmful characteristics become rare (p, 27). Natural selection occurs as a result of successful reproduction by persons who have advantageous traits (Darwin p, 39). This results in adoption of beneficial traits by the subsequent generation. Over a number of generations, adaptations take place through successful combination of small, random alterations in traits, as well as natural selection of the changes best suited for a particular environment. Genetic drift on the other hand results in production of random alterations in the number of characteristics in a population. Genetic drift occurs as a result of the role played by chance in determining whether an individual will live on and reproduce (Starr, Taggart, and Starr p, 415).

The greatest controversies of biology are found in the unity and diversity of life. Naturalists have greatly employed Darwins explanation of unity or organic forms in order to resolve this controversy. Darwin applied the concept of evolution to every living thing including human beings, and claimed that all individuals, who belong to the same species, reveal some sort of variation between them (Goodenough, Wallace, and McGuire p, 9). According to Darwin, individuals who have advantageous features, for both reproduction and survival, pass them down through genetic inheritance from one generation to the other. Darwin teaches that variation, on which natural selection plays a role, is basically of small magnitude and that indefinite variation in all directions as well as the progressive accumulation of a particular series of variations, all resulting in the production of a novel species, occurs as a result of natural selection (Gulick, 28). In his theory of natural selection, Darwin stated that only those organisms that have the advantageous characteristics that suit a particular environmental condition are selected by nature. Natural selection, therefore, turns out to be a vital aspect in the evolution process (Darwin p, 45).

Unity and diversity of life comprises of the dual facets of life on earth. Natural selection gives an account of the relatedness among organisms in a population by revelation that different animal species are related through descent from a common ancestor (Gulick p, 25). Modern animals, including man, are believed to have originated from a common simple ancestor. However, as a result of increased complexity, modern species appear different from the ancestral species. Nevertheless, a remarkable evidence of unity of life is revealed by the similarities in the molecular structure of species. Modern molecular studies reveal biochemical similarities between different species. Comparison of DNA sequences between human beings and apes reveal a close genetic similarity. This reveals that these two species probably had a common ancestor (Starr, Taggart, and Starr p, 410).

Natural selection also gives an account of the great diversity that is displayed by modern species. Organisms that have distinct traits that enable them to live in environmental niches not occupied by similar organisms, according to Starr, Taggart and Starr, possess a greater chance of surviving (p, 410). Over generations, species which originated from a common ancestor have diversified in addition to occupying more and more environmental niches in order to take advantage of unutilized resources. Modern species are a phase in the progression of evolution, and their diversity results in the development of a series of speciation as well as extinction. Diversity of life, according to Gulick, does not result in development of a completely new and unique organism, but rather in organisms that share certain morphological similarities (p, 27). Vestigial characteristics that have no specific role resemble functional ancestral characteristics, and as a result, organisms can be categorized using these similarities into a ladder of connected groups.

Personal consumption on the environment

The biosphere 2 environment has some parallels with the real world we live in biosphere 1. As a result certain conditions are shared between the two when it comes to sustaining the life of a person in Biosphere 2 and the sustainability of a persons lifestyle in the real world (Schulze, 1996). Life in the world and in the biosphere 2 needs to be supported in the same way since human have some basic needs even in enclosed space (Schulze, 1996). Some of the key needs that might not be directly measurable are like oxygen which is required in both spheres.

In the biosphere 2 the biospherians experienced higher levels of carbon monoxide which had to be regulated as would happen in enclosed space (Schulze, 1996). Oxygen levels were also reduced to unforeseen circumstance like the cement concrete. Provisions have to be made in both spheres for that. In exploring my footprint even though air does not have a price tag, land available for use like forests directly affects the quality of air available (Pound et al, 2003). Food is also quite basic and as such provisions have to be made for the cultivation of foods that will offer sufficient nutrition for people (Pound et al, 2003).

In the biosphere for example the biospherians experienced effects of the new diet. They lost weight due to the changes but in time adapted to it. In the real world life has to be sustained with food enough in quantity and quality for the normal function of people (Chivian  Bernstein, 2008). In both spheres people also need to account for waste disposal (Pound et al, 2003). This is because in the limited space of biosphere 2 care has to be taken so that waste does not negatively affect the environment, for example pollute clean water, or take up too much space (Pound et al, 2003).

Without proper management of waste toxins can enter the environment (Schulze, 1996). Proper management of waste can also enhance the environment. For example, food and plants not fit for consumption by the biospherians could be fit for the animals and some of it could also be used as manure (Schulze, 1996). In my footprints waste requires fossil and forest land to deal with. A reduction in my waste would save or free up fossil and forest for other uses (Pound et al, 2003).
In the project of calculating my footprint size, I noticed that some categories had huge sizes while some had less. Each shows factors contributed most to its size. Although I might have expected housing, heating and food to account for higher contribution it is surprising that transport that is by far the greatest contributor. My transport was at an amount of 2000.

The least contributor was goods. In my footprint, I spend the least on goods at an amount of 6.8. In the goods category the most used resource is pasture for the wool, followed by fossil which is used in the production of almost every item and finally land arable land for the cigarettes and cotton. Using cotton more than wool would reduce my footprint hectares as well as doing away with smoking.
The next contributor is waste at an amount of 7. The most resource used here is fossil followed by forest. Paper and paperboard used up most fossil as well as consumed the most forest. This would indicate that reducing paper used or wasted would reduce fossil use (EPA, 2010). At the same time, by recycling paper I would reduce my forest consumption since trees are used to make new paper (EPA, 2010).

The next category is services at an amount of 80. The most resource used is forest and then fossil. Forest is for the house under house insurance. Fossil is for telephone services. However the most fossil is consumed for entertainment purposes. In order to reduce my footprint size I would need to cut down on the use of telephone service and reduce my entertainments to make the most impact on fossil reduction.

The next category is food at an amount of 142.2. The most used resource in this category was pasture, followed by fossil and arable land. The most use for pasture was for milk and its products followed by production of beef. Most fossil use was for eating out followed by fish production. To reduce my footprint I would need to cut consumption of some milk or beef which contribute the most to a large footprint in this category. Though vegetables, potatoes and fruits have the largest amount in the category they use much less fossil and arable land.

The next category is housing at an amount of 780. In this category the most used resources are fossil and forest. The most amount of fossil was used for thermally produced electricity followed by the running of major appliances. In this category the forest use was for the singular purpose of the brick house. To reduce my footprint in this category, since housing is a basic need I would need to make cuts in my electricity use and reduce my use of major appliances (EPA, 2010).

The last category is transport at an amount of 2191. This category is much more than all the other categories combined. The most used resource in this category is fossil followed by built-up land. This is for the car itself and for its parts. The other resource used, the built-up land, is for the car parking. To make reduction in this category would require removal of the car as my mode of transport since the other consumptions are directly related to the car.

The footprint allows me to look at the whole picture. There are aspects of the footprints that are sustainable while others are not. My footprint exceeds the global average of 1.5 by as much as four times. The greatest contributors are fossil and forests. Both of these resources are being quickly used up (Pound et al, 2003) . Fossil makes 40 of my total amount while forests take up 19. Exhaustion of these two resources poses a unique challenge. Fossil is made in the earth over long duration of time and is exhaustible (Pound et al, 2003). Thus my lifestyle of rapid and huge consumption of it can not be sustained.

Fossil is used in many categories directly and indirectly. The other very notable resource is the forest. While consumption of forests continues to be high, there is evidence that more trees are needed (Pound et al, 2003). Thus the earth needs more trees to be planted as it is. Thus my lifestyle can not be sustained. The other highly consumed resource is arable land. Most of the arable land is used for food production. While this take a big size food is a necessity and production of vegetable food is better sustained than production of animal foods. This is because smaller amounts of animal foods show greater consumption of the resources

For example in my footprint calculation, vegetables, potatoes and fruits have a high amount of 20 but only consume 362 fossil and 218 arable lands. Pork which has an amount of 2.2 consumes 405 fossil and 234 of arable land. Chicken at an amount of 2.5 consumes 362 fossil and 308 arable lands. Beef (grain fed) at only an amount of 1.2 consumes high fossil at 283 and even greater land at 607 arable land and 4,620 pasture. This clearly indicates that animal foods consume more resources. Eating out in the food category consumes a great amount of fossil at 1,013. This can definitely be reduced and made more sustainable.

Transport also indicates an area in my lifestyle that is not sustainable. It consumes too much fossil and yet there are other means of transport that can be interchanged (EPA, 2010). The greatest amounts in the housing category are major appliances and electricity. These two consume the greatest amounts of fossil of any category. These two can be adjusted to consume fewer fossils because if unchecked they deplete the resource at a great speed (EPA, 2010). As there are different categories that make up the foot print, so too are there different ways in which every category can be approached to make changes.

To begin with I would like to make changes in my diet. I could reduce my intake of meat products and replace it with tofu. I could also take more vegetable based foods or salads, and use fruits as snacks (Chivian  Bernstein, 2008). In the housing category, I could reduce the consumption of electricity by using energy saving bulbs for lighting (EPA, 2010). I could also reduce use of major appliances by running the washers and dryers are full load and hand washing fewer dishes (EPA, 2010). In the transport category since I already have a car I could change the way I use it.

I could take the bus whenever I do not have luggage to carry around. I could also plan my errands in such a way that I use the car minimally. I can also car pool with other students or family members so that those who do not have a car already do not buy one until it is absolutely necessary. In goods, I could opt for cotton instead of wool for my clothes using heavy cotton coats instead of wool coats or wool sweaters. I could also quit smoking. In services I could reduce my telephone use (EPA, 2010). In waste I could buy products that use recycled paper and recycle more. I could also use libraries facilities to read newspapers, magazines and books instead of buying my own.

While these options are possible adhering to them might not be so easy. If I were to make these changes my lifestyle would be fundamentally changed in some ways. For example I would have to be more conscious of my choices and to actively engage myself in implementing the changes. In shopping for clothes, for example, I would be required to look at the fabric contents to find out if it is cotton or wool. I would also have to give up the comforts of my car and endure walking and the elements of weather.

Reducing my footprint would also fundamentally change the way I look at the world. Every action that I take which consumes energy would need to be scrutinized. I would be less involved with consuming and exploiting that in conserving and preserving. Given all what is involved, it is possible to reduce my footprint. However everything has to be done in moderation. Drastic changes in my diet for example might lead to the same issue that the biospherians experienced in the first year of enclosure of weigh loss. The greatest challenge would be making it worthwhile so that I do not give up midway my plans. Making a change that saves money for example is a motivator in itself.

As global citizens I feel that Americas footprints should be reduced to be fair to other global citizens. The bigger size of American citizens footprint point to the lifestyle we live which although may be hard to backtrack can be modified to accommodate reductions (Pound et al, 2003). Many of the categories that represent big chunks that go into the footprint do not exist in many other countries in the same amounts as they do in America. For example in developing countries there is less usage of electricity, appliances, cars, heatingcooling systems and gas (Pound et al, 2003).

America as a whole should reduce its footprints. This should be through personal efforts to reduce personal consumptions as well as national policies to curb usage of resources. This can be through taxes, alternative sources of power, better management of waste and better more accessible public transport (Pound et al, 2003). Ignoring the consequences of America footprints on the globe would lead to careless use of resources (Pound et al, 2003). Although it might be tempting to feel indifferent about the question of resources, it is imperative to attend to the question before it is too late (Cohen  Tilman, 1996). Not only would the consequences be felt globally, but they would be also felt keenly at home. Progress made by America could be replicated in other countries for the good of the world.