Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Cell Structures

The cell wall and flagellum are among the vital bacterial cell structures. A bacterial cell wall is a tough, normally flexible but sometimes fairly rigid layer which encloses the contents of bacterial cell. It is always located outside the cell membrane and is composed of murein materials. These materials are made of polysaccharide chains cross linked by atypical peptides encompassing D-amino acids. The cell wall allows the survival of bacterial cells as a unicellular organism by separating the interior contents of the bacteria from the environment. This protects the cell against harmful influences emanating from the surrounding. Additionally, flagellum is a rigid helical filament structure which extends from the surface of bacterial cell. It is composed of flagellin proteins that are arranged in helical chains forming a hollow core. Flagella facilitate motility of bacterial cells, thereby allowing them to respond to stimuli, such as chemicals and heat which they need for survival as unicellular organisms (Cells Alive, 2006).

On the other hand, mitochondria and chloroplast are essential organelles of the plant cell. Mitochondrion is an organelle that is membrane enclosed, found in many eukaryotic cells. It has outer and inner membranes composing of proteins and phospholipids bi-layers. Mitochondria in plants, just like in other eukaryotes, play an imperative function in the cell as the main producers of adenosine triphosphate through oxidative phosphorylation. The energy produced by this organelle augments the development process of plant cells, thereby enabling the survival of multicellular plants. Finally, chloroplasts are disc like organelle composed of biochemical systems as well as chlorophyll for light harvesting and photosynthesis. It is in the green pigment (chlorophyll), that the process of photosynthesis occurs the process that provides food to plants to enhance their survival as eukaryotes (Enchanted Learning, 2009).


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