Miller Ureys Origin of Life

Primordial Soup
    The primordial soup theory is to express a hot and fresh beginning of life.  Oxygen and certain organic compounds determine the basis for environmental factors relating to evolution.  Once these are in place, the component to trigger molecular structure is the use of intense heat.  It was argued that in the beginning of the earths atmosphere the conditions were such that creation of spontaneous life came in the form of the building of amino acids in an aquatic environment.  It was felt that this was a routine occurrence and responsible for the origin of the species (Tripod, 2010). 

    In 1920s a Russian and English theorist, Oparin and Haldane conducted an experiment to confirm that the first organisms were heterotrophs, which consumed other living matter to survive.  This would change with photosynthesis, and ultimately would evolve to autotrophs by mutation (Tripod, 2010).  Back then, the experiment was scoffed at, but today it is clear that they were onto something, as it is now known that the first organisms were autotrophs.  Urey and Miller wherein they reenacted the earths early atmosphere tested this theory.  The results were affirmative in light of the ability to create molecular structures of living organisms. 

Stanley L. Miller and Harold C. Urey
    The experiment of the two theorists Urey and Miller consisted of a mixing of gases thought to be present on earths atmosphere during its primitive stages.  They used Methane, Ammonia, Water, and Hydrogen.  The experiment did not include the use of oxygen.  To this mixture, they applied an electrical current in place of lightning conditions. The experiment produced amino acids.  The equipment used to reenact the experiment is as follows
A vacuum line
Spark electrodes  high voltage
Trap for prevention of any backflow
Boiled water in a flask to collect reaction products
Used a sealed tube to collect reaction products

These were the flaws with the Miller-Urey experiment
They believed the earths atmosphere contained ammonia, water, hydrogen, and    methane.
Oxygenation was present on the earths atmosphere, evidenced by the rocks found there, and that would indicate that chemical evolution would not have been possible.
They predicted the incorrect gas mixture

The results were not as specified the amino acids did not contain protein
    Due to the resulting ineffectiveness of the experiment, and proven fact that the hypothesis assumptive nature fell through in light of the findings, theorists and scientists agreeably discredited the Miller-Urey experiment.  Theorists and scientists started looking at other answers that had a feasibility factor regarding the earths oxygenated atmosphere and chemical compounds.  In looking for an alternative answer, one that stood out clearly was that the beginning of life occurred beneath the ocean floor in a volcanic environment.

Critical Evaluations of the Experiment
Other theorists in realizing that Urey and Millers interpretation of the earths atmosphere in its early stages was pure assumption and the basis of their experiments were strictly controlled challenged the experiments findings.  Therefore, their findings were not factual as to the true nature of the creation of molecular stimuli.  It has been proven that the creation of amino acids alone do not produce the amount of proteins necessary to provide the structure needed to support life.  Most importantly, the earths atmosphere did not contain Methane or Ammonia and studies show that for most of its existence earth contained an oxidized environment.  Further experiments using electricity, ultraviolet light, heat and shock resulted in the creation of all 20 amino acids (Tripod, 2010).

The thermodynamics in light of this did not support the findings in establishing that the system becomes less and less organized over time, which means that amino acids cannot form protein spontaneously (Tripod, 2010).  The resulting factors present that this translates into the dilution of the primordial soup.  Its consistency was too weak to have generated proteins, and there was no proof of the presence of a lightning environment to trigger the concentration to make protein (Tripod, 2010).

    Theorist and scientist, Wachtershauser, offers another view or explanation of the creation of the species.  He proposes that evolution occurred as a volcanic hydrothermal eruption, which manifested into a pioneering organism.  It consisted of a mineral base with catalytic transition born of a composite structure with metal centers.  The metal centers were thought to be along the line of iron and nickel, but could also be a mix of cobalt, manganese, tungsten, and zinc (Wikipedia, 2010).  His results were taken into account as they related to the autotrophs thought to be the first originating organisms. 

    The premise of the catalytic transition was simple and was supported by the process, which is construed as the heating and pressurizing of water in a mix of dissolved volcanic gases with the heat reaching 100C. At this point, the mixture then meets metal solids, and the result is the formation of catalytic metallo-peptides (Wikipedia, 2010).  Experiments to this effect and their findings support Wachtershausers theory.    

    Wchtershuser had a main idea that metabolism in its early form came before the existence of genetics, as we know them today.  The metabolic cycle produces energy from chemical reactions that show this process is replicative.  With replication, more advanced complex compounds were formed because of this process.  Wachtershauser modeled his interpretation of metabolic structure over prebiotic function, introducing it as the Iron-Sulfer World Theory. The concept goes in alignment with the RNA world hypothesis.

    Looking at an added factor is that of the RNA World hypothesis.  It specifies that gene pools of RNA existed in the early origin of earth, yet there was not any genes consisting of DNA.  Of course, this development drove theorists on a rigid mission to discover how DNA molecules were formed.  The belief is that the RNA has the capability of not only storing molecular structure but of also having the ability to create molecular structure by causing chemical reactions.  Thus, RNA acting as an intermediate in the expression of maintenance of the genetic information is the basis of the creation of DNA (Nobel, 2010).

    The storing of gene information is the resulting chains that link ancestry in defining how far back a species originated and to what specific gene pool it originated from. Through all of this testing much has been confirmed regarding RNA and DNA principles, but still there is not definitive proof that man evolved from the ocean, as did the many species existing in the world today. 

    Chemical actions and reactions, metabolism, metals, gases and more are a basic makeup, not excluding that we are electrically stimulated into animation.  The recipe presented by the many theorists and scientists are true in representing the foundation of man, however the ability to reproduce this recipe from an earthly standpoint has not yet been 100 percent successful.

    Todays scientists are now dwelling on the fact that the recipe can be duplicated in an environment with internal factors, vs. the external reenactment of earths atmosphere.  This is seen in the breakthrough of conditions that started as producing life in a laboratory in a peach tree dish, to the creation of life as a test tube experiment, and now the most exciting breakthrough of all the creation of life by cloning (Fisher, 2008).  A direct process using the living cells of a live host, and duplicating them to reproduce this host as a living breathing identical character of the original host.

    This type of experiment has not been thoroughly studied, and a cause for caution is warranted.  This has resulted in limitations and restrictions being imposed upon scientists that negate their use of humans in replicating DNA structures.  It is hard to believe that scientists would settle for not being able to explore this type of experiment on a human scale.  As time continues to pass, and new technology appears on the horizon, it would not be a surprise to see the event of cloning as a natural practice to defeat sickness and death, as man comes into an age of settling the controversy that has long been a question of evolution.  Although humankind may not be able to confirm that man evolved from earths atmosphere, he may settle for being able to copy life as it is in its existence and to be what he believes as holding the power to determine its quality of life and its time of demise.  The finding of the research that has gone before sheds light on earths atmospheric chambers yet still does not yield conclusive evidence in the creation of man. Confirmation that other species have evolved is evident in light of their findings yet, humankinds beginnings are still hypothetical in nature. What the research has shown is how fragile is the balance of earth and the surrounding universe in regard to mankinds existence, yet and still, how powerful in combination of each other in the ability to cause mans destruction.


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