Effects of Pesticides on Development

The use of pesticides has been increasing massively all over the world without any discretion or control. Everyone believes that the results obtained from using the pesticides are only positive, and people tend to ignore the significant aspects that it may entail environmental pollution. Besides, people also do not consider the fact as to whether the chemicals so used are only affecting the intended organisms or whether it has any unforeseen side effects. Several studies argue that in most cases, the application of pesticides is never aimed at the organisms that actually cause the damage. There is evidence to suggest that these pesticides make numerous manipulations in living organisms entailing negative repercussions on the host body. This paper includes an experiment using a variety of chemicals and the objective has been to analyze different behaviors or manipulations that take place in the organisms. Different time intervals have been kept while doing the experiment. In the result and discussion section, it establishes the most suitable application of pesticides, found best in effecting the target organism most efficiently. In the conclusion part, it finds that only one of the pesticides used in the experiment brings the intended result. Thus, it transpires that the massive use of pesticides needs to be reduced and to make the process more viable only effective pesticides should be used.

Pesticides are widely used around the globe and hence the topic of their influence in development becomes a relevant issue in the modern world. It is being claimed that approximately 90 of pesticide applications in agriculture never reach their target organisms and instead is dispersing through the air, soil and water. The resultant repercussions have increased chemical pollution in the environment by organophosphorus (OP) insecticides indirectly affecting and toxic organisms which are not meant as the target. Pesticides and associated chemicals obliterate the fragile equilibrium among species that exemplifies a working bionetwork The enzyme and hormone disrupting capabilities of pesticides and related chemicals are suspected to be some of the factors contributing to the decline of fish, amphibian, and reptile populations (Khan and Law 315). Pesticides create numerous physiological and biochemical alterations in freshwater creatures by persuading the actions of quite a lot of enzymes. Modifications in the chemical setup of the ecological aquatic habitat generally influence biological and physiological composition of the populations, predominantly the system of fresh water and marine animals.

The pesticides and other such chemicals overly being dumped on earth for farming activities are released straight or circuitously into the water resources. The existence of such compounds in the surroundings has turned out to be a universal ecological concern. Experimental analysis and surveys have revealed that biological reproduction, expansion and maturity of floral and faunal genus, consisting of entire sectors of both worlds have been affected by chemicals that interrelate by means of the endocrine scheme. Pesticides may become inhibitors of sex hormones, resulting in anomalous sexual growth, strange sex quotients, and extraordinary sexual instinct. These will obviously disrupt the biological set up of the ecosystem.

There are a lot of evidence from previous research and studies conducted about the negative impacts insecticides have on inhibiting neurotransmitters acetylcholine to chorine and acetate affecting the rate of phosphoration. It explains how the transportation of compounds by sea is the largest contributor of organophosphorus (OP) in the marine environment. Finally, in this section the researchers discuss the ways in which they will test the effects if toxicity of Ops by measuring the effect of locomotion on Brine Shrimp. Shrimps are easy to use in a study as they are easy to cultivate and have a short generation time. The study also finds that locomotion is found to be easy to measure due to the sensitivity of toxic stress. So, to identify the most appropriate pesticides which are overly affecting organisms this is the best medium. Finding such a pesticide is very significant for retaining the balance of our ecosystem. Thus it is important to carry out an experiment in order to analyze or find out the correct pesticides which is best suited for the target organization.

Methods and Materials
The chemicals used in this experiment were acetylthiochlorine iodide, 5, 5-dithiobis, acephate o, S-dimethyl acetyl phosphor-amidothioate, 2 chlorpyrifos, 3 monocrotohos, and 4profenofos. The test organisms were brine shrimp cysts hatched within 24 hours at 27 degrees in 3 artificial synthetic seawater. Next, the methods section discuses how the brine shrimp lethality test was preformed according to the method described by Meyer et al. (1982). The brine shrimp hatchability test were recorded after 24 hours of exposure using 5 replicates of each concentration and the percentage of hatching success concentrations used in order to estimate the effective concentration required. About 1000 two days nauplii were harvested with LC50 concentration in a separate set of experiments. To record the behavior, 25 nauplii were taken one by one into a 96-well culture plate by using video-tracking system. From each control and treatment replicate, 200 nauplii were cleaned twice with old phosphate buffer to remove toxicants and homogenized to estimate AChE activity.

Results and discussion
The lethal concentrations of the toxicity of the four insecticides, CPP, PF, MCP and ACEP against brine shrimp are made evident through experimentation analysis, providing the findings of CPP being most toxic to the brine shrimp, PF and MCP being less toxic and ACEP being the least toxic of the four pesticides. These findings concluded that CPP was most highly toxic and that hatching success was at its lowest in CPP conditions, where CPP inhibited the hatching success more than the other 3 toxins. It was also found that swimming speeds of the organisms were most inhibited in CPP environments than the other 3 toxins. Finally it was found that the degree of abnormalities except for size was lowest in ACEP conditions. The usage of chemical pesticides poses much threat to all organisms of all species including human beings which may turn out to be a reason of extinction and abnormality in different creatures in this world.

The findings on the greater toxic effects of CPP on the test organisms than the other three pesticides are evidently explained. But it is not that these are sufficient for the ultimate practical winding up. Further experimentation is needed in order to extensively study the effects on insecticides on different marine aquatic organisms. The differences between the sensitivities and the effect of salt water on the toxic effects of pesticides are made free from redundancies through experiments. It was found that the use of brine shrimp was a simple and accurate method in order to discuss the toxicity of pesticide activity on locomotion function. Also pesticides turn out to be much influential on different organisms ranging from terrestrial animals, amphibians, fishes etc.


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