The Great Escape mRNA export

Transcription is the process through which the mRNA is synthesized form the DNA. The process of DNA transcription is similar to DNA replication but the enzymes involved are different. Transcription of DNA into an mRNA through a DNA template is mainly influenced by an enzyme called RNA polymerase. For the RNA polymerase to influence the transcription process, the enzyme must first recognize where the sequence of the gene begins. This will ensure that the enzyme knows where synthesis of the mRNA should start. The ability of the enzyme to recognize the site of initiation in the DNA is due to the presence of the promoter sequence, a sub-unit in the DNA. The promoter sequence which is located at one end of the DNA strands instructs the enzyme where and in what direction to start synthesizing the mRNA. This is followed by unwinding of the double helix strand by the enzyme and the mRNA strand is synthesized, complimentary to the DNA strands. This process is unidirectional. Although the transcription process is similar to the DNA replication which has been well studied, it is not clear what events or processes are responsible for instructing the enzyme to stop transcription process (Peters, pg 235).    

After DNA transcription is complete, the resultant RNA is not ready for export to the ribosome and the subsequent translation process. The mRNA produced undergoes a series of modification before it is exported to outside the nucleus. The modifications are called post transcription modification. However, this processes are absent in some non eukaryotic organisms whose mRNA is ready for export after transcription and may not require any modification. In the eukaryotic organisms, research indicates that a series of modification process takes place before the mRNA is exported to the ribosome. The export of the mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm across the membrane takes place through the nuclear pore complex. It is essential for the transcript to be modified in a way that it will be recognized by the nuclear pore complex. (Grlich and Mattaj, pg 1515).

Post transcriptional modifications are series of processes through which the precursor mRNA is converted into a mature mRNA. These processes are essential for the correct translation of the genetic material in protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. In these cells, the primary mRNA or the precursor mRNA contains the exons and the introns. The exons describe the coding segments of the mRNA precursor while the introns consist of the non coding segments. Before the mRNA molecule is exported for export, there are three main modifications that take place. These includes 5 capping, 3 polyadenylation and finally splicing.

The capping of the precursor mRNA is a process through which a 7- methylguanosine is added to the 5 end of the precursor. This is done by first removing the phosphate on the 5 end using the phosphatase enzyme followed by formation of disphosphate on the 5 terminal which is catalyzed by guanosyl transferase. The GTP molecule is then added to the diphosphate terminal leading to lose of the disphospate. This process is also catalyzed by the enzyme guanosyl transferase (Moore, M.S and Blobel, pg 662). The process leads to 5 to 5 linkage of between the triphosphate groups in the guanine residue. The nitrogen in the 7 position is then methylated using SAM (S-adenosyl methionine). Incase no other capping modification happens apart from the methyl group added on nitrogen at seventh terminal, the mRNA precursor is known as cap 0. Otherwise more capping can be done where SAM can be used to add methyl group on the ribose sugar groups of the neighboring nucleotides to form a cap 1 mRNA precursor. Subsequent methylation of the ribose groups of the nucleotides along the mRNA molecule leads to formation of cap 2, cap 3 cap 4 and so on. It should however be noted that these subsequent additions of methyl groups downstream are added at the hydroxyl groups at position 2 of the ribose sugar molecule. This capping at the fifth position introduces a protecting group in the mRNA to reduce the likelihood of attack by the 3 5 phosphodiesters in the ribonucleaseses which are found in the eukaryotic cells (Izaurralde, pp 710).    

Studies suggests that there exists a  capping enzyme complex, consisting of the enzyme units involved in the capping process, which is incorporated on the RNA polymerase and ensures that capping continues as the transcription goes on. The enzyme complex through a series of processes caps the first terminal as soon as it emerges. This capping enzyme complex can bind to an RNA polymerase only, the enzyme responsible for the transcription process, to ensure that only the transcripts are capped in the nucleus. Other than protecting the 5 terminal of the mRNA in the translation process, the capping regulates the export of the RNA by ensuring that only the capped mRNA is exported. The cap binding complex, which regulate the export of mRNA from the nucleus can only bind to mRNAs which are capped at the fifth terminal. This is very important because the nuclear pore can only recognize the cap binding complex. The nuclear pore then exports the mRNA to the cytoplasm and the position of the cap binding complex is taken by the translation factors (Peters, pg 236).

Another post transcription modification of the mRNA precursor is the addition of a 200 units of adenosine monosphospates tail. The process starts with cleavage at the 3 terminal of the strand which is followed by a process of adenylation. This process is triggered by the presence of a polyadenylation signal sequence near the 3 terminal of the precursor followed by a second signal. The first signal is designated by 5AAUAAA3 while the second signal is designated by 5CA3 on the precursor RNA strand. The cleavage always takes place at the second signal sequence. A strand rich in GU sequence downstream is also essential in the polyadenylation process. This process begins as the transcription process ends. Because the cleavage happened specifically at the 3 most position on the poly (A) chain, the transcripts formed are homogeneous. However, some cells have been found to exhibit alternate cleavage where adenylation takes place at other sites within the site producing a variety of transcripts from a single precursor (Segref, pg 3256).

Splicing is also a major process that takes place before triplicates are exported to the cytoplasm. It involves removing the introns, the non coding segments, on the precursor. This process leaves the exons which are reconnected into a single molecule with continuous proteins codes. This splicing process can occur at any point during the transcription process depending on the protein being synthesized. The process is catalyzed by an enzyme complex known as splicesome. Following this modifications, the pre mRNA molecule forms complexes with the export proteins to form RNP. The formation of these complexes is essential for the recognition of the mRNA by the nuclear pore complexes. The adapter proteins and the export receptor TAP are the most important components of the RNP complex. The Export receptor TAP component causes the export of the mRNA to the cytoplasm by interacting with the adaptor protein and the nuclear pore complex. The adaptor protein on the other hand binds directly to the mRNA being exported (Huang and Joan, pp 900).  

Summary of the article Muc2 Protects against Lethal Infectious Colitis by Disassociating pathogenic and Commensal Bacteria from the Colonic Mucosa

Investigation of the manner by which host cells evade the attack of attaching and effacing (AE) Escherichia coli pathogens was sought to be executed in this paper by analyzing the role of goblet cell-derived Muc2 in host-pathogen interactions. To accomplish the goal of this paper, Citrobacter rodentium, a murine AE pathogen related to AE coli, was inoculated to Muc2 deficient mice (Muc2--). Mice with Muc2 or the wild types were also infected with C. rodentium, and were used as control organisms. Physical and physiological changes were monitored, compared, and evaluated. Results showed that WT mice tend to release significant amount of Muc2 when exposed to pathogens as compared to Muc2-- mice thereby suggesting the importance of Muc2 in pathogen evasion. Further studies confirmed that Muc2 limits overall pathogen and commensal species in order to protect the host from prolonged bacterial AE infection.  

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), both of which are attaching and effacing (AE) types, are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in both developing and developed countries (Bergstrom et al., 2010). These microorganisms mainly target  the digestive system of patients and results to diarrhea, dehydration and a series of other complications. Aside from this, EHEC may also lead to the production of the highly lethal Shiga Toxin (Stx) if not properly treated. Main sources of these microorganisms are infected food and water supplies. Because of the profound significance of AE E. coli in public health, researchers are working hard to investigate the mechanisms by which hosts will be able to fight the detrimental to lethal effects of EHEC and EPEC. However, due to ethical reasons, actual tests on humans cannot be done so scientists opt to investigate the AE pathogen equivalent of E. coli on mice, Citrobacter rodentium (Bergstrom et al., 2010). This microorganism has been found to result to acute colitis, mucosal hyperplasia, barrier disruption and loose stools. Furthermore, a number of scientific studies have suggested that mucin production is one of the most important strategies of host cells when managing enteric bacterial infections.

Mucins are glycoproteins with high molecular weights and are embedded with serine, threonine, and proline-rich domains. One of its derivative, Muc1, was found to be active against Campylobacter jejuni infection by reducing the impact of the attack and prohibiting potential spread of the infectious agents (McAuley et al., (2007). In this study, Muc2, the major secretory mucin in both humans and mice, will be investigated. Muc2 forms polymers which become the basis of  two-distinct layers in the mammalian colon, inner and outer, where the former is sterile while the latter is heavily colonized by commensal bacteria (Bergstrom et al., 2010). Related researchers have confirmed the role of Muc2 in regulating commensal and gut homeostasis but its interaction with the mucosal pathogens is not yet established. In line with this, the authors of this study wanted to investigate the role of Muc2 in preventing the colonization of AE pathogens in the mucus layer by using C. rodentium in mice models.

Research DesignMethods
Experimental procedures made use of two groups of six to 11 weeks old mice where one group was composed of in vivo-altered Muc2 deficient (Muc2--) and the other included wild type (Muc2) mice. C. rodentium were inoculated to mice by oral gavage. Infected and uninfected tissues of the halothane-anesthetized and cervical dislocation-killed mice were collected and enumerated for bacterial counts. Histological staining and RNA extraction were performed on the tissues followed by cecal loop modeling, bioluminescent imaging, metabolic labeling, permeability and antimicrobial assay, DNA staining, and finally, statistical analysis of the measurements obtained.  

Results and Discussion
Results showed that Muc2-- mice exhibited increased susceptibility to C. rodentium, worsened mucosal damage, and elevated microcolony formation on their mucosal surface as compared to wild type mice. Also, mucus secretion was also significantly elevated in response to C. rodentium infection. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that mucins play important role in the evasion of AE pathogens and it was discovered in this paper that the muc2 is the first line of defense of hosts against invading AE pathogens. It was also discovered that an array of non-pathogenic microorganisms have thrived in the gut of Muc2 deficient mice, an event that was not observed in wild type mice. Hence, the authors concluded that Muc2 in mammals serve an important role in effectively managing infectious and non-infectious agents by reducing commensal load on the mucosal surface.  

Presentation of my understanding of the paper
The findings presented in this paper offer a possible method of combating attaching and effacing EPEC and EHEC. Utilization of this knowledge may help researchers to finally devise a way to reduce, if not totally eliminate, the occurrence of digestive diseases related to E.coli infections in both developing and developed countries. Subsequent studies must be done to demonstrate Muc2 responses in humans. But at present, it can be said that this study, once perfected, will truly benefit humans and will offer a possible way of controlling disease proliferation. The authors must be commended for doing a detailed experiment and for presenting their results in a well-written report. Lastly, studies of this type must be executed more often in order to address the growing number of deaths due to bacterial infections.

Pathophysiology of Colon Cancer

According to the United States Cancer Statistics (2010), colorectal cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in America as of 2006.  There are an estimated 70,270 men and 68,857 women who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer (cited in US Cancer Statistics Group 2010, web-based report).

The progression of colorectal cancer has been known to begin with may start as a benign polyp but may become malignant, invade, and destroy normal tissues, and extend into surrounding structures (cited in Brunner and Suddharths textbook of medical-surgical nursing 2008, p. 1070).  There are several disorders and preexisting conditions known to be linked to colorectal cancer, including familial adenomatous polyposis, such as Gardners syndrome and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, ulcerative colitis, Crohns disease, Turcots syndrome, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma, and other pelvic cancers treated with abdominal radiation (ibid, p. 22).

A malignant polyp contains cancerous cells and is invasive (cited in Madara  Denino 2008, p. 423).  The authors further expounded that the time it takes for a benign polyp to develop malignancy is 10 to 15 years with genetic mutations occurring in a predictable manner.  The epithelial lining of the intestine usually is the site of adenocarcinoma where 95 of the cancer of the colon and rectum begins to develop.   The effects of progression of colorectal cancer start locally in the area close to the anus.  The patient with colorectal cancer may experience a change on bowel habits and a feeling of incomplete defecation.  Thus, it is important to assess patients for a possible sign of colorectal cancer when there is lower gastrointestinal bleeding and increased presence of mucus.  When the cancer progress, the tumor can grow into a size large enough to obstruct the bowel thus leading to constipation, abdominal distention, and vomiting.  Based on my experience, my great aunt died of colorectal cancer lost a significant amount of weight, chronic anemia, jaundice, decreased appetite and abdominal pain.

 Kemeny  Dizon stated, sixty percent of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer go on to develop hepatic metastases (Bleiberg  Kemeny 2002, p. 359).  Based on this finding, the abdominal pain experienced by my late aunt is due to the stretching of the capsule covering the liver.  The only site of colorectal cancer is the liver by as many as 30 of patients.  The authors elaborated that in general, the liver is a frequent site of metastatic involvement by a variety of tumors, including breast, colon, lung, stomach, and pancreas.  The portal circulation of the liver provides a rich, blood supply and changes how cancer calls originating from the colon.  When these cancer cells grow beyond 3 mm angiogenesis enables them to form their own system for the supply of blood, which they draw from the arterial circulation (ibid 2002, p. 360).  Furthermore, cases of colorectal cancer have a physiologic rationale for hepatic metastasis due to the drainage of the gastrointestinal tract by the portal system of the liver (ibid 2002, p. 359).

Fast Food Nation Summary

Fast Food Nation is a movie tie-in of the book with the same title by Eric Schlosser, and a film which tackles the topic of fast food and its steadily-growing industry, mostly about its ill-effects and how it has emerged to become a force to contend with among business enterprises on a global scale.

Some facts that can be ascertained from this film immediately follow.  Primarily, the movie attempts to tell the viewer that fast food is now inextricably linked to the American way of life.  Next, despite the lack of training, the immigrants, most of whom are Mexicans, are made to work in hazardous conditions where they are expected to keep the pace, make the required quota, stay away from drugs and take utmost care not to be injured.  The presence of cattle manure is traced back to the meat packing plants where the untrained workers sometimes make mistakes in gutting the cattle, hence the accidental spillage of manure on the meat, which, by the way, occurs on a regular basis.  Fast food chains in general capitalize on low production costs such as cheap labor and the low price of raw materials to maintain the low prices of the items on their menu.  Oftentimes, students from the poor communities are the ones hired in fast food chains, and it is quite notable that sanitation standards are left unchecked, where these underpaid workers rebel against the corrupt system by delivering products which are of the most unhygienic and inferior quality.

The film is a poor adaptation of the book by Schlosser mainly because the film failed to capture everything that the author wanted to share to the viewer.  The movie tried to present some sub-plots out of the different ideas imparted by Schlosser but it somehow fails to cohere or conjure a unified portrait of all of these ideas pertaining to fast food.  Still, it is an enlightening piece of art on its own since it gives a glimpse of the accurate situation or what really goes on behind the fast food counter and even farther behind that, into the other links to the business as well as the factual routes in food handling and preparation.  There is not much reference made to the problem of obesity and its continuing upsurge as related to consumption of fast food in the US although there is an essential link to these two issues.  Likewise, possible solutions should have been included to address the issues, or the film should have just adhered to the documentary format like Super Size Me so that all the authors ideas could have been included.  

Post-exercise Recovery Period for the Cardiopulmonary System Review of a related literature, a journal article entitled, A Practical Test for Predicting Maximum Oxygen Consumption by Jimmy H. Ishee

Although this research study is not very expressly measuring the post-exercise recovery period of the cardiopulmonary system itself it is a very relevant measure as it directly relates to VO2 measurements during a physical activity. The post-exercise state means one has to do the activity first, measure the VO2 level during that physical activity and similar variables are used when measuring the changed level when one is already done with the activity. Thus, this journal article is selected by yours truly. Below is the summary.

Quoting a certain part of the article, it states that according to the American College of Sports Medicine, VO.sub.2 max tests are costly and time-consuming. In this regard, it can be assumed that normal individuals may not perfectly measure the VO.sub.2  ( VO2 for brevity) but this measure can of course be closely estimated or at least predicted. However, there is no harm in trying to experiment in real situation with at least hundred individuals to simulate the reality of it and at the same time lower the cost of this expensive process and at the same time compare it with the predicted VO2 max or base the predicted value from a test or a study. According to the journal article, VO2 measurement tests are usually administered in university laboratories or medical settings, which are not available to the average practitioner. Submaximal prediction tests that have been developed are capable of predicting VO2 max outside a clinical setting with large groups of people. This method is less expensive and in some ways a safer way to measure VO2 max. Since submaximal tests do not require maximum effort, they are more suitable for a wider range of the population.

The main purpose of the research study, as stated in the journal was to develop a submaximal endurance test for college students through various physical activities such as walking, jogging, or running. The authors wanted to eliminate the reliance on heart rate as a measurement for predicting VO2max and provide a test that had a comfortable pace suited for individuals at different fitness levels. There were a hundred and one (101) participants to the study, consisting of 54 males and 47 females. There were 3 exercise tests composed of a two 1.5 mile endurance tests and a maximal GXT, which was given in a laboratory and these tests were completed not on the same day allowing the participants to relax or rest in between. The article emphasized that the 1.5 mile run is on a somewhat hard level of activity.

Based on the 1.5-mile data that the study gathered from the activities, two VO2 max regression models were generated by multiple linear regression. It was hypothesized that in order to assess the concurrent validity of the VO2 max equations, correlation coefficients and standard error of estimates were computed. Various measures and statistical factors were presented in the article and sample computations were given in order to arrive at the conclusion of the study.

According to the journals final note, it was concluded by the study that the activity, which was the 1.5-mile endurance test, that the VO2  max from submaximal exercise without measuring the heart rate or requiring an all out effort allowing those who participated to do their exercises such as walking, jogging or running to be accommodated, can be predicted. It was concluded that these different levels of fitness activity is a practical way in predicting VO2 max.

Feedback Inhibition

Feedback inhibition also known as end product inhibition refers to an important mechanism in the biosynthetic pathways involving enzymes. The synthesis of molecules such as amino acids and pyrimidines in the human body is tightly regulated and most of the steps controlled enzymatically. Usually, in feedback inhibition, the end products in biosynthetic pathways inhibit the first enzymatic step and hence controlling the synthesis of the end products themselves (Khanna, 289).

The first enzyme in the pathway which is inhibited is known as the allosteric enzyme. This mechanism takes advantage of the preexisting enzymes already in the cells to control various biosynthetic processes. An interesting example of allosteric or feedback inhibition is what happens in the biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotide bases which are important components of nucleic acids. The allosteric enzyme involved in the first step catalysis in the synthesis of cytidine triphosphate (CTP) is aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) which catalyzes the condensation of carbamoyl phosphate and aspartate to produce orthophosphate and form N-carbamoylaspartate (Berg, Tymoczko  Stryer, 402). The CTP which is the final product of pyrimidine synthesis acts as an inhibitor to the enzyme ATCase. It is observed that the increased accumulation of CTP greatly reduces the speed (Vmax) of the enzyme ACTase (Berg, Tymoczko  Stryer, 402).

The process of feedback inhibition such as that which takes place in CTP biosynthesis is crucial in the synthesis of nucleic acids, the molecules that regulate all the life processes. In the absence of the CTP, the rate of ATCase is faster but this rate decreases when more CTP accumulates. This process is critical as it ensures that more CTP molecules are sent in the biosynthetic pathway to produce more and more pyrimidine bases. The more bases synthesized, the faster the growth process of organisms and the faster the wound healing process or DNA repair.


The food that we eat cannot be assimilated into the body in the same manner that we ingest it. It needs to be broken down through various processes aided by chemicals and anatomical structures in the human body. This paper discusses the process of digestion in the alimentary tract until it is absorbed into the body.

The food that is ingested needs to go through several processes in the body before it is assimilated into the body. These processes occur in the alimentary tract which is a long structure beginning from the mouth to the anus. There are also other important chemicals, hormones and digestive juices which are involved in this whole process. These are found in specific portions of the tract and each food is digested or broken down in specific region. Therefore, the breakdown of food is either mechanical or chemically carried out. The end result is the division of the food into very small components or sizes that can pass through into the cells (Insel, Turner and Ross, 2004).

Everyone has at one time embarked on a journey in their lifetime. In addition to this, you hope to have a smooth trip and reach your destination safely. Herbert the hamburger has prepared to go through a very long and tortuous journey of his life. Everything is in place and he only hopes to have a safe trip. The main purpose of this trip is to deliver very vital documents that are needed to a company known as Body Builders. If these documents do not reach their destination, the company dies. These documents includes Fats, Carbohydrates, Proteins and Minerals.

The journey begins in the mouth where Herbert goes through some rough machines known as the teeth. This breaks it down into small forms through mastication. The document known as carbohydrate starts to be processed in the mouth and it involves a good friend known as saliva who is the boss in this department. Saliva does this with the help of amylase. This breaks it down into simple forms. From the mouth, permission is anted to move to the next level. To do this, Herbert is rolled into a bolus by the tongue and thrown at the back of the mouth. The epiglottis prevents Herbert from going through the trachea which is a wrong route. Herbert moves down in a smooth wave known as peristalsis into the esophagus until it reaches the gate of another department known as the stomach. This gate is known as the cardiac sphincter (Insel, Turner and Ross, 2004).

In the stomach, enzymes are also involved in the digestion process. Protein digesting enzymes are known as proteases. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. The bonds existing between them are broken down by hydrochloric acid from gastric wall. This is followed by breakdown of amino acids by the enzyme pepsin (Insel, Turner and Ross, 2004).

The food enters the small intestines through the pyloric sphincter. In the small intestine, pancrease produces amylase which further breaks carbohydrates to lactose, sucrose and maltose. These are broken down by lactase, sucrase and maltase enzymes respectively. These three are converted to an important form known as glucose which is absorbed via the villi on the walls of the intestines and finally find its way into blood circulation. Glucose is necessary for cell metabolism and function. However, the amount of glucose is regulated by the liver with the help of hormones. Too much glucose (hyperglycemia) is transformed into glycogen and stored in the liver through the help of insulin. In cases where glucose levels are low in the blood (hypoglycemia), the reverse happens i.e. conversion of glycogen to glucose with the help of the hormone glucagon. In cases where there is no glycogen, the hormone glucagons initiate formation of glucose from amino acids or fats. This process is known as gluconeogenesis (Insel, Turner and Ross, 2004).

The digestion of fats is with the help of enzymes known as lipases. Fats are complex molecules and should be turned into small molecules. This happens with the help of lipase enzyme from the pancrease and the end result is glycerol and fatty acid molecules. In addition to this process, bile from liver enters through the bile duct and emulsifies the fat. This makes it easy for the enzyme (lipase) to break down the fats starting from the surface. Storage of the bile usually occurs in the gall bladder. The body absorbs fats through the villi that cover the small intestines. The structure of the villus is such that it has capillaries and lacteals (lymph vessels). Fatty acids and glycerol enter into the lacteals into lymphatic system and finally bloodstream. Fatty acids find its way into adipose cells for storage or as source of energy (Insel, Turner and Ross, 2004).  

Protein digestion also continues in the small intestines in duodenum. The pancrease produces protease enzyme namely trypsin. In addition, chymotrypsin is also secreted. It works in a similar manner as pepsin. The end result of breakdown of protein by trypsin is amino acids. This is done through hydrolysis with insertion of water molecule between the bonds of amino acids. This helps in separation of the bonds that hold the amino acids together. The amino acids can thus pass through the intestinal wall into bloodstream. Their importance is in the repair of structures of the body. The waste products and undigested material move to the large intestines where water is re-absorbed. From there, it moves to the cecum and out through the anus (Insel, Turner and Ross, 2004).

Post-exercise recovery periods for the cardiopulmonary

The cardiopulmonary system is made up of the heart and the lungs which are both located in the thoracic cavity of the body. The two organs are central to the circulatory and the respiratory systems respectively. Exercise entails exertion of the body to achieve a physical benefit. The cardiovascular system performs several vital functions in the body during exercise. It delivers oxygen to the muscles, transports the heat generated from the core to the skin, transports glucose and essential nutrients to the active tissues, pumps the deoxygenated blood back to the lungs for oxygenation and also transports hormones such as adrenaline. During exercise drastic changes occur in the body which places a high demand for the cardiovascular system to step its functional rate. For instance, the more waste products created during exercise require to be removed, more energy supply is required and the excess heat produced removed. The cardiopulmonary system must therefore regulate all these processes to ensure physiological sanity in the body.

 For the body to regain strength for more exercise, a period of rest is required during which the cardiopulmonary system and the muscles undergo recovery. Therefore, for the cardiopulmonary and cardiovascular systems to recover, a period of reduced exercise must accompany the exercise. During this period, several changes occur driven by essential parameters. The central organ in these systems is the heart which do not benefit from a recovery program that removes any stress on it above the sedentary level.

The most important element of post-exercise cardiopulmonary recovery is the fluid level of the body which largely comprise of water. This is explained by the fact that body exercises result in the generation of heat in which the body has a mechanism of getting rid of the excess heat through sweat. The implication of this is reduction in the volume of fluids present in the blood. At the same time, the blood vessels undergo vasodilation to permit loss of excess heat through the skin. The resultant effect is the lessened ability of the blood to carry out oxygen transportation and distribution of glucose and other nutrients throughout the body. Following the loss of body fluids to the level of 2-3, it may require several hours for the cardiopulmonary system to attain its optimal fluid level (, 2010).

In addition the recovery of the depleted minerals essential for the operations of the cardiovascular system may take even a longer period but this will depend on the amount of the minerals used up during the exercise. Therefore, the post-exercise recovery period of the cardiopulmonary system is largely influenced by the recovery of the fluid level of the blood and also the restoration of used up energy reserves during the exercise. Following exercise, the cardiopulmonary system must undergo several adaptations for it to accommodate the changes brought about by the exercise.

 The most vital ones include changes in the heart size, the heart rate, stoke volume, cardiac output, blood flow, blood pressure, and blood volume. During the recovery and adaptation period, the heart volume and mass increases whereas the cardiac muscle undergoes hypertrophy. The most affected is the left ventricle as well as the thickness of the myocardial wall. The resting heart rate for a previously sedentary person reduces in addition to changes in the stroke volume. Stroke volume increase as a recovery event is attributed to an elevated end-diastolic filling as a result of reduced heart rate and increase in blood plasma and so blood volume. Blood pressure is another aspect which is altered during post-exercise recovery of the cardiopulmonary system. The systolic and diastolic pressure is likely to decrease during sub maximal exercise and at rest (, n.d).

The post-exercise recovery of the cardiopulmonary system is critical for facilitating further exercise. The benefits anticipated from exercises therefore can only be accrued if the requirements for the recovery process are readily available in the body. The most important factors which regulate the rate at which the recovery process takes place are the body fluid levels and the supply of glucose and other nutrients. Therefore, intake of large volumes of water is highly recommended after exercise to elevate the blood volume. In addition, several adaptations are therefore required to ensure that the changes occurring during the recovery process function to the benefits of the body.

Global Warming

Executive summary
Human activities are behind the current climatic changes in the world as a result of global warming. These activities have been necessitated by the need to create more wealth to sustain the increasing world population. The need to expand the agricultural production has resulted in large scale deforestation to create more land for farming and grazing activities. Greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere have come from power generating activities, industrial processes and exhaust fumes from vehicles and air planes. These gases such as carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and methane have contributed to the greenhouse effect which is the phenomenon behind global warming.  

The implications of global warming are many and some of them are severe. Most of the food chains that have been established naturally between species have been broken by the effects of global warming. To cope with these impacts, most species have been forced to move from their original ecological occupation to other ecologically favorable areas. The interrelation between different species in a given ecological niche therefore has become disrupted by the threats posed by global warming. Global warming is also related to the depletion of abiotic resources due to their overexploitation. These include fossil fuels, metals and minerals whose utilization is closely interrelated. There are various economic, social, ethical and political issues that are associated with global climatic change. These issues largely address the aspects of equity and responsibility. Different cultures such as the traditional livestock farmers in Africa have felt the pinch of global warming. Solutions to global warming must be practical and also require strong political will to implement. Policy makers have a big role to play since the nature of these policies and the will to implement them forms the basis of having solutions to global warming.

1.0 Introduction
In the past century, the Earth has experienced a drastic change in the climatic patterns which has been influenced by a new force that did not influence it before. This is because temperatures on a global scale are increasing at a faster rate than ever which cannot be explained by the natural processes. This force is humanity. Global warming is an environmental issue which has currently caused massive concern over the sustainability of the ecosystem and life of every living thing on earth. Global warming is the unusual rapid increase in the average temperature of the air near the surface of the earth and the oceans over the past century and its projected continuation. The causes of global warming have been attributed to the emission of greenhouse gases from the burning of fossil fuels. The major concern is that the rapid industrial growth accompanied by non-structured methods through which humans have adopted to sustain themselves have resulted in environmentally harmful processes that are eroding the ecosystem at an alarming rate.

The early warning signs of this environmental issue are many and can be divided into two. There are those which have a direct manifestation and are long-term and there are also those which foreshadow the effects that are imminent following widespread continued warming. The direct manifestations include the melting of glaciers, unusual warm weather and heat waves, warming of the Arctic and Antarctic, ocean warming, rise in sea level and coastal flooding. On the other hand, the events foreshadowing these impacts include bleaching of the coral reef, heavy snowfalls, downpours and flooding, rapid spread of disease, range shifts of plants and animals and changes in their populations, widespread severe droughts and earlier spring arrival (1). The objective of this paper is to discuss the details of this global issue and the possible solutions which can alleviate it.

2.0 Causes of Global Warming
2.1 Greenhouse gases
Scientists have unraveled several causes of global warming which include certain greenhouse gases. These gases are released through human activities such as combustion of fossil fuels, industrial processes, during production of electricity and also during refrigeration. Chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons as the major gases used in refrigeration are powerful greenhouse gases which occur in lower concentrations in the atmosphere. However, their potency is even greater than that of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide for which a large percentage is released from burning of fossil fuels such as oil, kerosene, gas and petrol is a major greenhouse gas that causes global warming. In addition, agricultural activities have resulted in the release of nitrous oxide from fertilizers. Methane is also released from agricultural activities especially from the digestive systems of grazing animals and also from landfills (2). These green house gases are responsible for the phenomenon called greenhouse effect in which the main contributor is water vapor.

2.2 The greenhouse effect
The light from the sun is absorbed by the surface of the earth resulting in the warming of the earth whereas the rest of the light is radiated at a longer wavelength back to the atmosphere. The greenhouse gases present in the atmosphere absorb some of this long wave radiant energy before it is lost to space. The resultant effect is the warming of the atmosphere. Therefore, these gases act like a mirror in the sense that they reflect some of the radiant energy that would be lost in space back to the Earth giving rise to the warming of the atmosphere. Greenhouse effect therefore refers to this aspect of reflecting back of heat energy by the atmosphere. 36-70 of greenhouse effect is caused by water vapor, 9-26 by carbon dioxide, 4-9 by methane, and 3-7 by ozone (3).

2.3 Deforestation
The current rate of deforestation in most parts of the world is a worrying trend since it has increased the severity of global warming. The aspect of carbon dioxide release into the atmosphere is directly related to deforestation. Trees and in deed all plants absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and utilize it in the manufacture of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats for their own survival. In this respect, plants can be seen as contributing to the reduction of CO2 present in the atmosphere. Following deforestation, the cut down trees are either burnt as a source of fuel therefore releasing more CO2 or left to decay in which the Co2 stored in them enters the atmosphere. The overall effect of such human activities is therefore increase in the concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which is directly connected to global warming (4).

3.0 Interrelatedness of species
As global warming is increasing at an alarming rate, human activities carry the bulk of the blame as many animals and plants struggle on how to survive the devastating impacts. However, humans are also largely affected by this phenomenon as the effects grow cumulatively. Global warming has disrupted the food chains upon which nature has established to facilitate the survival of different species in a specific ecological niche. This has as a result interfered with many aspects of interdependence of various species. The rise in sea levels as a result of global warming causes the water to cover the lowland islands. The plants, animals and people inhabiting these areas are therefore faced with a disaster. Most plants die due to much water and this translates into a loss of food source for the people and animals as well as losing their habitat.

As a result the animals may eventually die of hunger. Humans therefore lose two sources of food that is animal food and plant food in addition to losing their homes. This arouses the need for migration from the area to look for new habitat with food. The ultimate outcome of these events is that the original food chain is broken which directly affects the interrelatedness of species in the area. The situation in aquatic life is the similar in that the warming of oceans has destroyed many species of algae due to the rising water temperatures. Algae being a producer in the food chain are a source of food for many consumers such as small fish, some whales, and crabs. Consequently, humans are dependent on these consumers for food. The death of algae means that less food will be available to the consumers and therefore less food for humans and other animals in the sea (5).

Various characteristics in the plant and animal kingdoms have been observed which point to the unnatural climate change. For instance the red foxes have been forced to spread northwards and have encroached the territory originally occupied by their cousins from the arctic. Polar beers of today compared to those of about 20 years ago are much thinner and less healthy. On the other hand, some plants have been noted to thrive in environments in which their growth was formally limited due to the changes in temperatures that have provided heat, more water and sunlight. Butterflies overwhelmed by temperatures in the south are now moving northwards where temperatures are cooler (6).

4.0 Interrelatedness of abiotic resources
Abiotic resources entails all those non-living physical and chemical components that are found in a given geographical or ecological environment The interrelatedness of abiotic resources can be explained from the understanding that the current escalation in global warming is as a result of increased utilization of the available nonrenewable resources such as metals, fossil fuels and various minerals for the production of energy for example electricity and heat. These abiotic resources are interrelated to a considerable extent and hence their continued exploitation may result to their depletion. The elevated usage of these resources has been triggered to a large extent by the modern industrial society whose operations are dependent on a triad of metals, hydrocarbons and electricity which are intricately connected.

This interrelation is such that each of the three resources can only be accessed in the presence of the other two. For instance, global scale generation of electricity is only possible through the use of hydrocarbons for which the same dependence on hydrocarbons is true for the smelting of various metals. The culmination of this has been the imminent depletion of the better types of ores while the remaining types require modern machinery for their processing and more hydrocarbons for their smelting. On the other hand, extraction and processing of hydrocarbons requires the incorporation of metals and electricity in such activities. While these abiotic resources are equally important, electricity emerges to be the most fragile so that its failure signals an early warning of trouble in the other two resources. The production of steel demands heavy utilization of hydrocarbons especially coke from coal.

The high global demand for steel is due to the need to construct large and powerful bridges, machinery, automobiles, skyscrapers and tools in the modern industrial society. Oil emanates from fossils but its production by the oil producing countries has declined due to the depletion of these fossils. As a result more resources and energy must go into getting lower quality and less accessible oil from the ground therefore leaving less money for the production of electricity and metals. This depicts the close relationship between these valuable abiotic resources whose utilization is directly related to global warming (7).    

5.0 Anthropogenic influences on Global Warming
Anthropogenic factors are the human activities which influence the environmental conditions. Global warming have been aggravated by several human activities mainly deforestation, transport and electric power production.

5.1 Deforestation
This refers to the massive scale clearing of the Earths forests which in most cases cause deterioration of the land quality. The current rate of destruction of the rainforests which form an important cooling band in the equator is considered to be one of the major causes of global warming. The increasing world population has caused the need for more land for cultivation in order to ensure adequate food production in addition to the need for more grazing land and settlement.  Human activities such as logging for paper products and wood have resulted in massive destruction of many rain forests. Current research has confirmed that deforestation is the cause of up to 25 emission level of the gases that trap heat or the greenhouse gases. The major forests whose destruction has had the greatest influence on global warming are found in Congo, Brazil and Indonesia (8).

5.2 Transport
Transport as a major human activity has contributed significantly to the current increase in global warming due to the gases that are released from vehicles and airplanes. This anthropogenic influence is rampant in developed countries where vehicles constitute a bigger source than industry. Each year, an estimated 300 million tonnes of exhaust toxic gases are released from cars into the atmosphere. Most of these gases from petrol engines contain hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, traces of sulphur dioxide and solid particles. Exhaust gases from diesel engines contain a lot of particles than the content of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. These vehicle emissions significantly contribute to the phenomenon of greenhouse effect. On the other hand, air transport has over the years become a common means of transport since it is fast and convenient especially in the business world. A single jet plane has the capacity to emit harmful gases as much as 7,000 vehicles over the same period of time. These emissions pose even a greater danger since they are released into the higher atmosphere therefore increasing the possibility of damaging the stratospheric ozone layer (9).  

5.3 Power production
This anthropogenic influence on global warming is also a highly sensitive issue since it emanates from the need for humans to generate power to run various operations that are vital to economic development. Electric power production plants release large amounts of gases which contribute to the greenhouse effects and also affect human health. The main source of these emissions is the burning of coal which results in the release of far more carbon dioxide than natural gas or oil. In addition to CO2, other gases from the burning of coal in power stations include carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and dust particles which contain heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium and lead. The acid grain phenomenon is also largely caused by the large amounts of sulphur dioxide released from coal burning during power generation activities (9).

6.0 Issues associated with Global warming
6.1 Economic issues
Global warming has elicited world wide economic issues which need to be fully addressed since they have a direct impact on the economies of every country whether in the developed world or in the developing world. The pertinent issues revolve around the costs and benefits attached to global warming, how these costs and benefits will be distributed among all the affected groups of people or countries and also the response to this environmental issue. Such economic considerations are considered paramount due to the fact the greenhouse gases have spread in the whole atmosphere so that all the world regions are exposed to the implications of global warming. However, these economic considerations face the challenge of equitable distribution of costs and benefits since the warming impacts are unevenly distributed across countries, regions and across industries.

For instance, parts of Western Europe and North America have started experiencing early springs and late autumns which has greatly affected the tourism industry which is largely dependent on the attraction of snow and glaciers for tourists and skiers. In the Southern Europe, desertification has been rapidly spreading whereas severe hurricanes have occasionally caused loss of lives and great destruction in the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern US. The fishing industry in many countries such as Bangladesh have been badly affect by the frequent sea-level rise which prevents fishing activities (10).
Despite such losses, there are those who are beneficiaries of global warming especially in the temperate agricultural areas which now experience prolonged growing seasons. This has allowed more agricultural activities thus generating more income though with other costs emanating from increased pests and changes in the farming methods. The costs of global warming are likely to extend over several decades or centuries due to the increase in the degree of its socioeconomic impacts which is also likely to extend over the cause of time. Therefore, in estimating the cost of global warming, it is prudent to consider these factors such that the costs are distributed not only over the current generation but also over several generations to come.

6.2 Social issues
Global warming as an international environmental concern is inseparable with the many pressing social impacts touching on politics, economics and social stratification. For instance, the diverse policies geared towards alleviating the effects of climate change may cause inequalities in different ways. The greatest concern on inequality is that nations and individuals who may have had minimal contribution to global warming might be disadvantaged by the policies adopted in response to global warming. There are also health implications of global warming in which the poor are the most exposed since they have lesser capacity to implement responses such as adaptation.

6.3 Ethical issues
These issues include the areas of allocation of global emissions among nations so that a fair distribution of the costs and benefits is achieved. In addition, the responsibility of the damage caused by global warming ought to be carried in a manner not to burden those who have had minimal or no contribution to the climate change. The issue therefore is ethical since it requires that it be addressed with the interest of people at heart rather than focusing on self interest. The sense of justice and ethics of people have to be considered and incorporated in making decisions on how global warming ought to be handled (11).

6.4 Political
The political issues of global warming have been attracted by the concern over the many asymmetries in the costs and benefits distributions both among countries in the world and in the domestic policies of individual countries. The Kyoto Protocol is the major international agreement whose aim is to fight global warming. Two Kyoto Protocol Annex I countries with large reserves of fossil fuels that is US and Australia have not ratified this agreement. In addition Saudi Arabia has been highly opposed to the Protocol though it is not among the Annex I countries (10). This correlation is further confirmed by the economic policies of Canada who has played a leadership role in the whole fight against global warming. However, a close scrutiny of its Kyoto Protocol ratification process brought in to light the interregional conflicts which can be attributed to its dependence on fossil fuel reserves to drive its economic agendas.

The principal policies adopted as a response to global warming issue are mitigation, business-as-usual, and adaptation. Mitigation policies captures the various efforts by governments, industries, organizations and individuals in bringing down the net rate of greenhouse gas emissions including the aspect of carbon sequestration and other measures of trapping these gases. Such policies rely on practical approaches such as moving away from relying on energy sources from fossil fuels in power generation and transport activities, increasing energy efficiency, switching methods of production and products, and reducing deforestation and increasing reforestation.

Business as usual refers to the agreement of operating business activities and running the government policies along the present paths. However, this response to global warming contains loopholes since disagreements have arisen over whether it is business-as-usual when some countries decline the greenhouse gas emissions intensity. Greenhouse gas emissions intensity is the units of emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents divided by the units obtained from the economic activity for example the GDP. Decline such a policy by some countries results in elevated levels of emissions and concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. On the other hand, adaptation entails various measures which would suppress the second order socio-economic effects such as changing the farming methods, building dykes, improving the systems for sending early warning signals on imminent storms, and inoculation against diseases like malaria (10).

7.0 How Cultures are affected by Global warming
As global warming escalates, the impacts are already being felt across the globe. Various traditional cultures are likely to be hard hit by the current trend of climate change. For instance, the disappearing Ice Parks in arctic regions due to the rising temperatures is likely to badly affect the world life in those regions. The polar bears for instance who rely on the sea ice to hunt seals as the major source of food will be deprived of this means. The natives in these areas also depend on the seals and walrus for food and therefore the melting sea ice is a threat to their livelihood. Traditional livestock farmers in Africa have tried to cope with the devastating effects of climate change through rearing different livestock species, embracing economic diversity and moving temporary to areas with greener pastures. However, the worsening situation in climate change will make it more difficult to apply these mechanisms as the available grazing land becomes diminished and the population increases (12).

8.0 Possible solutions and their drawbacks
One of the solutions is the use of alternative sources of fuel in running of cars and airplane engines. Such fuels include compressed natural gas and electricity. However, compressed natural gas has a very low volumetric density so that it would require large car-tanks so as to have a reasonable driving range. Use of electric power to drive car engines has limitations in that it does not facilitate high speed and also the bulk of batteries which have to be installed in the cars. Collective fiscal measures such as taxation are a possible solution. Fossil fuel use for instance can be reduced by imposing a carbon tax on fuel consumption. This is in the effort of reducing Co2 emissions with additional benefits such as increased energy efficiency due to the resultant higher fuel prices. In addition, the revenue generated can be utilized to offset the various damages brought about by the use of fossil fuels or used in intensive research for solutions to environmental challenges. However, some drawbacks include socio-economic problems in that the producers of high cost energy will suffer the most (13).

9.0 Conclusion
Global warming is a highly sensitive environmental issue which concerns every nation in the world. The impacts on the climate being witnessed all over the world have been largely caused by human activities who have adopted various methods of wealth generation with most of these strategies lacking the aspect of environmental consideration. Overcoming global warming is a course worth pursuing by all and calls for collective responsibility of all the policy makers so as to alleviate the survival threat posed by climate change on all the species.    


Cholera is a disease that causes diarrhea and vomiting effect, caused by a bacterium Vibrio Cholerae. This bacterium enters human body through contaminated drinking water or food, affecting the intestines through which it enters the blood stream. It produces toxics that forces water to exude from the blood in large amounts. This water is excreted as diarrhea and vomiting.

Different human populations are affected by cholera infections at differently. The rate of infection depends on individuals blood group. Blood group O is adversely affected followed by B, and A respectively with AB being the most resistant of them all. All patients who show the signs should be tested and administered with the necessary treatment.

 According to statistics, most parts of the world are attacked by the disease seasonally. For example, by early 2009 the Sub Saharan region had recorded over 128,500 cholera infections while over 4,000 patients died. In Iraq, about 22 deaths were recorded with 4,569 patients reported positive in 2007 when there was water shortage coupled with the infection outbreak. Vietnam reported 2,490 patients in 2008.

The usual signs include excessive diarrhea and vomiting which results in abdominal pain and dehydration. Most of the signs show within the less than five days after the infection.

Cholera is diagnosed through the usual laboratory test procedures after taking stool sample. The most useful indicator is the series of signs after infection occurs. This makes it easier for treatment to start before the lab test results are out.

 The recovery time depends on the time taken before administration of treatment and treatment method. Extreme cases of dehydration may often die due to irreversible effect of water loss in the body.
Prevention is better than cure. Protection against cholera is through keeping proper sanitation, clean and safe drinking water as well as clean cooking environment. More so, sterilization and proper waste disposal from infected patient is important. Sewage treatment is also paramount, (Baldwin, 1999). Warning information should also be issued to the public for better prevention especially if an outbreak is sensed. Vaccines are available which can be used to denature or kill various strains of Vibrio cholerae.
The most effective treatment method is the Oral Rehydration Therapy, ORT, which effectively and safely replace dehydrated water from the patients body quickly. Homemade solutions like sugar, fruit juice and table salts may be used. In case the patients has severe problem they may be subjected to intravenous rehydration procedures.

Cholera pandemic results from biological attack by Vibrio cholerae O1 and was first recorded in 1817-1923. Vibrio cholerae originates from the classical biotype serogroup strains. Cholera had earlier been reported to result from El Tor Biotype. The 7th pandemic tests showed some correlation between the 0139 serogroup and El Tor strains related to cholera.

7 cholera pandemics are already recorded. According to research cholera pandemics 1-6 were caused by an attack by classical biotype of Vibrio Cholerae. Vibrio Cholerae has been studied over time due to it different strains that cause cholera at diverse regions. Researchers developed the need to understand the seventh pandemic El Tor and O139 evolution, (Dziejman, 2001).  

The hypothesis was the O139 strains evolved from the 7th pandemic El Tor isolates (3, 13). Research data established supported the hypothesis. According the research it is proven that nonpathogenic El and strains of classical biotype, closely related to El Tor, originate from other lineage. Thus the 7th cholera pandemic was caused by the El Tor type of Vibro Cholerae and not the classical strains. This information is vital for generation of necessary treatment. The information also gives insight to further research towards the control of reoccurrence of such pandemics.

My choice of this microbiology article was driven by the desire to know how Cholera affects humans and its cause. The text was very interesting and informative. In fact I would recommend all the microbiology scholars to read it.    

Ebola virus

Ebola virus constitutes some of the major viruses that have the capacity to cause viral hemorrhagic fever syndrome. Ebola virus belongs to the family Filoviridae. Ebola virus has been responsible for quite a number of well documented outbreaks of deadly human hemorrhagic fever. It is important to look at as well as understand the nature of the virus and the disease it causes because it has the ability of wiping out a large percentage of the global population within a short time. This paper will employ a qualitative analysis approach to describe the methods of transfer of Ebola virus, the symptoms, treatment and vaccine. Various materials that will be used in this research include published work, legitimate website material, and peer reviewed journals.

It is clear that human beings since time immemorial have been subjected to a wide range of viral diseases. Strauss and Strauss (2008) states that quite a number of these viruses are believed to have evolved along with mankind and have been in existence since the inception of human life. Other viruses were acquired from animals that man came into contact with. These viruses jumped from animal sources to human beings and became human viruses that infect only people. Human beings turned out to be the vertebrate reservoir for these viruses. Some viruses however, even though their original source was animals infect human beings peripherally and human beings do not serve as their vertebrate reservoirs (Strauss and Strauss, 2008). These include Ebola virus, rabies virus, and eastern equine encephalitis among many others. Other viruses have entered the human race more recently. As human beings increase in numbers, they impinge on wildlife more and more, and alterations in the environment result in closer interactions between animals and human beings. This leads to an increased number of zoonotic viruses that result in epidemics of deadly human illnesses (Strauss and Strauss, 2008).

Ebola virus first came into limelight as the causal agent of two major epidemics of viral hemorrhagic fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo, along Ebola River as well as in Sudan three decades ago (Mahy and Regenmortel, 2009). Ebola virus is a very deadly virus that leads to adverse symptoms such as extremely high fever and excessive internal and external bleeding. It results in the death of approximately 90 of the people it infects (Mahy and Regenmortel, 2009). It is one of those viruses that have the ability of causing hemorrhagic fever. Cases of Ebola virus infection are mainly reported in Africa, especially in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Uganda, Gabon, Sudan and the Ivory Coast (MedicineNet, 2010). Other continents such as North America are believed to be free from Ebola virus. Ebola virus is a hazard to everyone, who is exposed to it, including health care workers. Ebola virus was named after the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ebola River, where its outbreak was first reported. Ebola virus belongs to the family Filoviridae. Filoviridae is a family of RNA viruses. Ebola virus is subdivided into five subgroups referred to as Ebola-Zaire, Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Ivory Coast, Ebola-Bundibugyo, and Ebola-Reston, which mainly affects non-human primates (Mahy and Regenmortel, 2009).

Transmission of Ebola virus among human beings has not been sustained. In spite of considerable advances in the comprehension of Ebola, researchers and scientists have not yet discovered the natural source or the factors that lead to its re-appearance in new outbreaks in human beings. Even though non-human primates are believed to be the source of infection for human beings, they are not the natural reservoir. Human beings are not reservoirs of the virus also, and infection with the virus is incidental (MedicineNet, 2010). The appearance of the virus in human beings at the start of an outbreak remains a mystery. Nonetheless, it has been posited that human beings are infected with the virus through contact with an infected animal. It is believed that Ebola virus is transmitted through body fluids. Infection with an Ebola virus subjects a patient to devastating symptoms. These symptoms are so severe that they lead to shock and death within a short period of time. Specific treatment of the disease has not yet been discovered. However, patients are given supportive therapy which includes balancing the patients body fluids and electrolytes (MedicineNet, 2010).

Ebola virus
Ebola virus is the causative agent for Ebola hemorrhagic fever often abbreviated as Ebola HF. This disease is a deadly disease both in human beings and non-human primates such as chimpanzees, monkeys, and gorillas. This disease appears sporadically, and the first case of the disease was reported in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Strauss and Strauss, 2008). Confirmed outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever have been reported in a number of African countries, after the DRC, including Uganda, the Ivory Coast, Gabon, and the republic of Congo. However, according to Strauss and Strauss (2008), cases of the disease have never been reported in some continents, especially North America. Ebola hemorrhagic fever usually emerges in sporadic outbreaks and spread rapidly within healthcare setting an aspect referred to as amplification.

Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an acute infection. Soon after the first person has been infected with the virus, it can be rapidly transmitted through a number of ways. Human beings are exposed to Ebola virus from direct contact with various body secretions such as saliva, semen, mucus, and blood in addition to tissues of an infected person (Rollin, 1998). Sexual contact can also lead to transmission of the disease. Ebola virus is rapidly spread among family members and friends due to the fact that they are exposed to direct contact with body secretions of an infected person when carrying himher to a medical facility. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009) assert that humans can also be exposed to Ebola virus infection through contact with contaminated materials and objects such as needles. The other mode of transmission besides direct transmission is nasocomial transmission. This is the mode of transmission that occurs within a medical care setting. Nasocomial transmission however, occurs after an outbreak. Nasocomial transmission occurs through direct contact in addition to contact with contaminated objects. In African medical care facilities, mask, gloves and gowns are rarely used while taking care of patients. Failure to wear protective clothing by health care workers, when taking care of patients suffering from Ebola hemorrhagic fever, exposes them to the virus. Re-using of infected needles and syringes exposes a large number of people to the risk of Ebola virus (MedicineNet, 2010).

Ebola hemorrhagic fever has got an incubation period that ranges from two to twenty one days. The onset of disease is sudden and is characterized by a number of symptoms. These symptoms include fever, headache, sore throat, general body weakness, muscular aches and joint pain (Rollin, 1998). These symptoms are then followed by diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and stomachache. Other symptoms associated with this disease include rashes, reddening of the eyes, excessive internal and external hemorrhage, hiccups, anorexia, asthenia, genital swelling, delirium, seizures, coma, depression, and reddening of the palate (World Health Organization, 2008).

Diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a challenging task due to the fact that early symptoms of the disease such as headache, reddening of the eyes, skin rash, and nausea are non specific to the virus. These symptoms also occur in patients suffering from other illnesses that affect people more frequently (World Health Organization, 2008). Nevertheless, if an individual is diagnosed with as many symptoms of Ebola hemorrhagic fever as possible heshe should be isolated to minimize cases of transmission. There are various laboratory procedures that can be used to diagnose Ebola hemorrhagic fever in a patient. These include Antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing, virus isolation, Immunoglobulin M ELISA, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These procedures can be used to diagnose Ebola hemorrhagic fever in a few days of the start of symptoms.
Immunohistochemistry testing, virus isolation and PCR are used to diagnose Ebola hemorrhagic fever retrospectively after the death of a patient (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009). World Health Organization (2008) states that tests on samples expose health care workers to intense biohazard danger, and therefore they should be carried out under maximum biological control conditions.

Strauss and Strauss (2008) make it clear that standard treatment of Ebola hemorrhagic fever has not yet been developed. However, patients are given supportive therapy in the course of treatment. Supportive therapy comprises of balancing the body fluids in addition to electrolytes of a patient. Maintenance of blood pressure and oxygen status in addition treating patients for any additional complication are some of the supportive therapy strategies employed in treatment of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Blood transfusion is carried out to counteract excessive loss of blood (World Health Organization, 2008). Prevention of Ebola, not only in Africa, but also in other continents where Ebola hemorrhagic fever cases have been reported presents a very challenging task. This is mainly due to the fact that the identity and the location of the natural reservoir of the virus currently remains a mystery. Only a few preventative measures have been devised so far. However, no specific vaccine for the disease has been developed. Several potential vaccines are currently being tested, but it may take years before they are released (World Health Organization, 2008). World Health Organization (2008) states that in cases of an outbreak the current socioeconomic factors usually favor the spread of an epidemic both in homes and medical care facilities. It is vital therefore, that healthcare workers possess the capability of recognizing cases of the disease if they happen to occur. They should also have the capacity to carry out diagnostic procedures, and be prepared to use realistic viral hemorrhagic fever isolation precautions and protective nursing techniques. These techniques comprise of wearing protecting clothing such as masks, gloves and gowns in addition to infection control measures such as total sterilization of apparatus, as well as isolation of infected persons from contact with patients who are not protected (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009).

Ebola virus constitutes some of the major viruses that have the capacity to cause viral hemorrhagic fever syndrome. Ebola virus first came into lime light as the causal agent of two major epidemics of viral hemorrhagic fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan three decades ago. Transmission of Ebola virus among human beings has not been sustained. The natural source or the factors that lead to its re-appearance in new outbreaks in human beings have not yet been discovered. Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an acute infection and soon after the first person has been infected with the virus it can be rapidly transmitted through direct contact with various body secretions such as saliva, semen, mucus, and blood in addition to tissues of an infected person. Sexual contact can also lead to transmission of the disease. Direct contact with contaminated equipments can also transmit the infections. Patients suffering from Ebola hemorrhagic fever present with a number of symptoms including headaches, excessive internal and external bleeding, muscular aches, gastrointestinal complications, and anorexia among many others.  Standard treatment of Ebola hemorrhagic fever has not yet been developed. However, supportive therapies which include maintenance of electrolyte and body fluid balance, treatment of additional complications, and maintenance of blood pressure and oxygen status, are provided to patients. Vaccine for Ebola hemorrhagic fever has not been developed.


The demand to understand aggression over the years has continued to intensify as it remains the central cause for broken families and relationships, societal conflicts and most importantly the major cause of incarceration for people in all age groups. Though some scholars have concluded that biological causes of aggression, the ability to address it by changing things in the environment at different levels of growth and development makes it to be more psychological.  However, it is the findings from many scholars that men are more aggressive than women which that has resulted to a more heated debate.  Joel et al (2010) found that women suffered about 65 of the total domestic violence.  Aggression is any action or behavior by members of the same community that is intended to instill pain or cause harm to a specified target for instance murder, domestic violence, manslaughter, and aggravated assault.  It from this consideration that this evaluation intrinsically analyzes aggression and why men are more aggressive compared to women.
Biological explanations

Variation in libido levels
According to Yvonne et al (2010), an individuals actions can be traced from his respective genetic constitutions of chemicals that command them.  In this case, aggression arises from stimulation of these chemicals and their relation to respective environments. Biologically, mens higher levels of aggression can be understood from two different perspectives. First the psychodynamic theory by Sigmund Freud considers behavior as a derivative and motivated by sexual and libido energies.  Aggression is therefore a libido representation as exemplified by the Oedipus complex.  With mens libido being relatively higher compared to women as Rhiannon ands Crisp (2010) explain, their aggressiveness is equally higher.  At childhood level, a boy of about five years develops strong sexual desires to his mother after realization that she is the provider of food.  Notably, this innate desire to associate with the mother makes the boy to develop and display aggressive behavior towards the father who is considered an immediate rival. For the girls, they seek to associate more with their fathers from penis envy before they are able to resolve the conflict.  Though Yvonne et al (2010) differ with Society for Neuroscience (2007) on libido extent in causing aggressive behavior, they emphasize that boys often take longer and their aggression is evident from a broader perspective (in school and community) compared to girls.  Report by Sigelman and Rider (2008) indicate that boys and girls exhibit aggression in about 10 and 6 of their varied social behaviors respectively.

Evolutionary explanations
Buss (2005) consideration presents aggression as a factor of an individuals chemical constitution and heredity effects.  Over the years different genes are passed down through generations to facilitate their survival in the community.  Similar to non-human organisms where males fight for mating preferences and food, men equally seek to control their dominance in the community and institutions.  Following the male dominance in most of the top executive positions, their aggression is projected at protecting themselves, their progenies and even relatives an aspect that soon turns into a cycle with only one family or region being in  leadership or management.  Notably, this consideration has however received major criticism as emerging scholars cite environmental factors as the main cause of aggression.
Neurotransmitter chemicals differences in men and women determine the levels of aggression in them.  Society for Neuroscience (2007) indicates that serotonin, a major neurotransmitter messenger, in ordinary levels as it mostly happens with women, have a calming effect.  However, men generally have a major deficiency of serotonin which has been linked to greater aggression levels.  However, these results appear to contradict previous findings by Garandeau and Cillessen (2006) which indicated that serotonin causes aggression when in higher levels.  . Yvonne et al (2010) findings are further supported by Buss (2005) who indicates that serotonin is used in treating aggressive behavior.
Unlike other causes of aggression which appear to be controversial in causing aggression in people, high levels of the testosterone (male sex hormone) in men compared to women is a major cause of their aggressive behavior.  Rhiannon ands Crisp (2010) explain that in a jail with males of violent crimes, their levels of testosterone was found to be higher compared to those without criminal record.  Unlike women, mens testosterone levels easily rise at slightest provocation to make them easily get involved in different crimes.  Therefore, though testosterone among men is generally high compared to women, it requires an effective precursor situation for one to be involved in aggression activity.

Psychological underpinnings
Social learning
In his view which appears to partially support biological causes of aggression, South and Georgina (2007) postulate that psychological considerations have more weight.  Naturally, people are subjected to differing environments which mould how they react to various situations.   According to Albert Banduras social learning theory, when people are subjected to aggressive environments, they internalize and latter practice related actions (Hines and Saudino, 2003).  In his experiment with children on aggressive and non-aggressive dolls, Bandura found that related aggression and non-aggressiveness was effectively replicated.  However, why are men more aggressive than women From a cultural perspective, South and Georgina (2007) argues that men are expected to be handy and therefore often subject themselves to key aggressive events.  For instance, more boys often prefer hostile computer games as girls prefer working with dolls. South and Georgina (2007) adds that as men grow up, they often seek to relate with more aggressive systems as they consider them to be useful in defending themselves and their families.  For instance, men will always seek to build up their boy muscles, train in defense skills and also watch hostile media which could easily result to aggression.  As indicated earlier, internalization of these violent actions creates a series of constant feedbacks reflected in their behavior as aggression.  

Life difficulties and stressful conditions
While it is generally agreeable that both men and women at a given time face difficult situations in life, Campbell (2006) and Ansara and Hindin (2009) explain that social settings make the former to be highly susceptible to stress.  Though the nature of social organization in the community is fast changing, men still bear the largest burden of providing their family with basic and luxurious needs.  Most of them either result to stealing or even robbery with violence to meet their expectations.  In his theory of development, Eric Erickson argued that people go through different stages of development in their lives.  To effectively go through adolescence and early adulthood, men are required to gather the necessary confidence that prepares them for latter life challenges (Leigh and Louise, 2010).  With the fast developing world, more men often result to aggression in-order to reflect the expected superiority and gather the necessary resources.

In their view, Gilbert and Daffern (2010) argue that more aggression does not necessarily result from difficulties and stressful conditions, but the models employed to address them.  How do men respond to stress and difficult situations Gilbert and Daffern (2010) report that most men often seek to address their stresses by turning to drugs.  For instance, use of alcohol and hard drugs often reduce their reasoning abilities a consideration that leads to conflict with their friends and back in their homes.  In the year 2007, 40 of men in the United States used alcohol with the number increasing up to 50 depending with the nature of stress (Finger et al, 2010).  However, it is worth noting that though use of drugs is initially driven by stressful conditions, it turns out to be addictive and may ultimately lead to violence even in normal situations.

Peer pressure in the society
Scholars over the years argue that peer pressure is one of the strongest forces that dictate the actions of most people especially during adolescence and early adulthood.  In his theory of psychosocial development, Eric Erickson indicated that most adolescents are in the process of searching the correct identity in the community (Hines and Saudino, 2003).  Gilbert and Daffern (2010) concurred with this view by indicating that once they get respective peer groups, they participate in all activities which often involve violence, robbery with violence and even murder.  Why then does peer influence appear to be stronger in men compared to women From an early age, girls are understood to be at a greater risk in the community compared to boys.  As a result, they are constantly watched by the family and the community which results to a more open peer group selection and their actions.  In his study on the effects of after school sports programs, Campbell (2006) argues that most parents were more concerned with their daughters compared to boys as they feared them from being raped or getting to wrong peers. However, by leaving boys out, Joel et al (2010) indicate that they were left to the wild peers and ultimately got involved in aggressive behaviors.      

Aggression in the society has created a strong need for measures to address it and reduce related negative effects.  Though proponents of biological causes of aggression are indeed correct in their argument, it is the social environment which has greater effect in causing aggression.  As Leigh and Louise (2010) explain, even the biological causes still require the correct social environment for aggression to be manifested.  For instance, though men have higher testosterone levels compared to women, they do not always result to aggression until the correct environment such as insults is available.  Therefore, should aggression be considered social and alterable by changing things in the society

From the definition of aggression, the notion of intent points at the strong social basement and possibility of addressing the causative basement. Joel et al (2010) argue that the learning environment can effectively be modified and guided to create positive development and ultimately eliminate consideration for aggression.  Through regulation of the learning environment for boys through monitoring and replacing hostile encounters such as violent games would effectively reduce chances of possible aggressions (Ansara and Hindin, 2009). By modifying and altering this learning environment, internalization of the hostile actions would not occur and its ultimate feedback in form of aggression would equally not be manifested.  It is perhaps from this consideration that out of school sports programs in the United States have attracted great support as both parents and government seek to occupy children especially boys with activities that are more productive and constructive such as sports.

In families, greater aggression by men as Rhiannon and Crisp (2010) concluded in their publication, can effectively be addressed by evaluating the causative factors.  For instance, most stressing conditions that result to aggression at the family setup are economic based.  By creating a stronger economy that supports better lives in the community and more supportive policies, stress as a cause of aggression would be greatly reduced.  However, for this mechanism to work, it is critical that government create a strong partnership with families and communities at the grassroots.

To concur with Finger et al (2010) view, people who result to aggression following major addiction to drugs such as alcohol should be subjected to counseling to make them view life positively.  Having eliminated the stressful condition as indicated earlier, the overall environment should be effectively prepared to support reduction of aggression.  For example, the family should be taught how to handle stressful conditions.  Finger et al (20100 further argues that aggression often occur as men see their situations from a less diverse perspective.  Through counseling, people suffering from aggression would further come across other people with more serious problems and mechanisms to manage respective situations that lead to aggression.  This would be a perfect model of stress management and ultimate mechanism of addressing it.

The understanding that people are subjected to peer-pressure influence at one time or another in life should be used in designing home and family settings.  Campbell (2006) and McEllistrem and (2004) argue that cases like murder and robbery with violence could greatly be reduced by safekeeping of equipments such as guns.  This consideration would indeed work perfectly if it is considered holistically by reducing chances of possible negative peers and greater supervision especially for the adolescents.  Adults with records of aggression should also be denied access to guns and monitored to facilitate effective recovery.    

From the above discussion, this essay supports the thesis statement, though some scholars have emphasized on biological causes of aggression, the ability to address it by changing things in the environment at different levels of growth and development makes it to be more psychological. It came out from the discussion that biological explanations of aggression consider men to be more aggressive largely from an evolutionary and body chemicals such as testosterone which is generally higher in them compared to women.  However, biological perspective failed to effectively consider the ability of addressing the issue through alteration of the social environment.  As a result, aggression was concluded to be social and therefore an aspect that can be addressed by modifying the social learning environment. From an early age, both boys and girls should be carefully guided to avoid involvement with negative peers that ultimately result to aggression. It is therefore critical that the society focus on social causes of aggression and ultimately seek mechanisms in the social environment to address it.  Finally, greater cooperation between respective administrative authorities with the community to facilitate their well being especially economically should be initiated.

Structurally diverse natural products that cause potassium leakage trigger multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis Article Review

Biofilm formation of bacterial cells, or the ability of bacteria to aggregate in response to certain signaling factors, is a relatively new concept that gives researchers and other scientists an extra load of scientific works. These works are connected to the idea that scientific investigators find it hard to establish facts that will clearly describe the event by which bacterial species, which were traditionally regarded to be solitary in nature, will begin to form communities. Myxobacteria, streptomyces and other groups of bacteria with clinical or industrial importance have been found to form biofilms under special conditions (Lopez et al., 2009). To further investigate this issue, the researchers studied Bacillus subtilis under varying nutritional and cultural conditions. They decided to grow B. subtilis on MSgg and LB and it was discovered that B. subtilis which were grown in minimal defined medium MSgg allowed biofilm formation while cells of the same species that were grown in complex medium of LB showed no biofilm formation. Hence, researchers speculated that there might be a specific factor that is present in  MSgg which has triggered the bacterial cells to aggregate.

In order to investigate this event, the researchers exposed B. subtilis cells to a battery of compounds including polyene polyketide nystatin and filipin, and other non-specific membrane disrupting detergents (Lopez et al., 2009). Among these compounds, only nystatin was found to induce biofilm formation of B. subtilis after it was supplied to LB. The inability of the other compounds to induce biofilm formation in B. subtilis suggests that the cation leakage from the cytoplasm to the extracellular space caused by nystatin is the primary element that signals bacterial cell aggregation. The previously mentioned statement is the hypothesis of this study which was tested by subjecting the microorganism to a list of naturally occurring small molecules. More specifically, B. subtilis was exposed to amphotericin, gramicidin, surfactin, and iturin (Lopez et al., 2009). Both amphotericin and gramicidin are capable of causing cation leakage but only amphotericin has similar structural configuration with nystatin. Surfactin and iturin, on the other hand, are cyclic lipopeptides which are produced by different strains of B. subtilis. Results showed that amphotericin, gramicidin, and surfactin stimulated the production of biofilm, an event which suggests that potassium cation leakage might be the cause of the biofilm signalization. Other compounds exhibiting no cationic leakage were eventually included in the experiment for comparison purposes and it was found out that they were not capable of inducing biofilm formation.

Next, researchers decided to expand investigations on the property of nystatin and surfactin because these two elements pose intriguing concerns for the investigators., The property of surfactin of being a natural by-product of B. subtilis and the non-surfactant nature of nystatin heightened the interest of the researchers. They discovered that these two compounds activate the regulatory circuitry that controls matrix production and protein kinase C (Lopez et al., 2009). Consequently, these events lead to the lowered intracellular potassium concentration in B. subtilis and to biofilm formation. In general, it can be observed that the results are consistent with the original hypothesis.

I actually picked this article because I am really interested with biofilm formation. I find it really amusing to know that the very small microorganisms are able to physically manifest themselves to us by forming slimy biofilm formations on the surface of plastic wares or metal utensils. Furthermore, this article was chosen because I believe that it will help me gain increased understanding of the processes of microorganisms.

A Research on Lupus

The disease called Lupus is a type of ailment that mainly damages and harms the immune system of an individual (What is Lupus, n.d.). In the United States, the Lupus disease vastly affects about one point five million Americans, wherein the majority or almost 90 of the total diagnosed patients with such ailment are mainly females (What is Lupus, n.d.).

In most normal circumstances, the immune system of an individual works by making antibodies and immunity cells, which are special substances that battle numerous germs and infections (Seward, 2007). However, in the case of Lupus disease, the patients immune system acts oddly and can not clearly distinguish the difference between the bodys normal and healthy cells and germs that could create infection (What is Lupus, n.d.).

In this regard, the topic about the Lupus disease is chosen mainly because of its strange characteristics and odd effects to the human immune system. More so, Lupus and its epidemiology are deemed as essential and interesting topics to be further explored and studied. With the fact that this type of disease mostly affects female patients and their immune system, this topic is chosen to present a deeper understanding with regard to the treatments and diagnostic techniques on Lupus.

History of the Lupus Disease
Though the disease called Lupus is more popularly known as a modern twentieth century ailment, its early descriptions could be traced back to the days of Paracelcus (1500AD) and Hippocrates (400BC). The terminology called Lupus has coined in the mid 1850s by two of the most famous Parisian physicians namely Clausit and Cazenave (Field, n.d.). They are known as the first physicians to make a clear description about facial rash and skin ulceration that look like a bite from a wolf (Field, n.d.). Some people think that this is where the word Lupus (Latin for wolf) originated (Hochberg, 2003). In relatively the same era in Vienna, a dermatologist named Ferdinand von Hebra released the first image of butterfly shaped facial rash that is also believed to be the basis of the term Lupus (Hochberg, 2003).
Sir William Osler, on the other hand, first mentioned the word Lupus in 1903, when he diagnosed twenty young ladies with evident skin rashes and chest twinge that created inflammation in the linings of the lung called pleurisy (Field, n.d.). More so, these female patients are diagnosed of having kidney disease, brain involvement and strokes, which are all deemed to be fatal that caused the death of 18 patients in two years from time of presentation (Field, n.d.).

Knowing the severity of Lupus, this event has created wide development throughout the medical world (Field, n.d.). Drug therapy has been introduced more especially the use of antibiotics from the early 1930s that prevented further infections that served as the most common cause of death, back then (Field, n.d.). Furthermore, the use of steroids has been introduced in the late 1940s as another effective medicine for most Lupus patients, more especially those who have relative inflammatory joint diseases (Field, n.d.).

Anatomy of Tissues and Organs Affected in Lupus
The Lupus Disease can cause inflammation and problem in various tissues as well as blood vessels anywhere in the body. In most common cases, Lupus mainly affects and harms the kidneys (A Patients Guide to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, n.d.). Usually, Kidney tissues, blood and numerous membranes are swollen, as the large deposit of chemicals in the body form in the kidney. These occurrences are enough to make vast changes in the kidneys, which prevent it from functioning the way it should be. (A Patients Guide to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, n.d.).

The effects of Lupus in various tissues and organs could also be seen in the inflammation of lining, covering, and muscles of the heart. Human heart could be affected even without typical or any heart symptoms (A Patients Guide to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, n.d.). In most common instances, Lupus creates bumps and swelling in the endocardium, which is the lining membrane of chambers and valves of the heart.

Furthermore, Lupus also causes inflammation and problem in the skin. Rashes in the skin are common for most Lupus patients, which could appear anywhere. However, the most common location of these rashes is concentrated across the cheeks and nose.
Alterations on the Anatomy of Lupus Patients

Lupus patients normally have rashes that are red, itchy, and painful, which can be seen and usually show up in almost every part of the body. Most common is the butterfly rash that appears on the face of the patient. More so, Lupus also causes hair loss among its patients. Most Lupus patients tend to be highly sensitive to sunlight, wherein even minimal exposure could cause severe and painful skin rash.

Muscles and Bones
Lupus patients experience inflammation or joint pain, wherein any joint could be badly affected. The most common spots are the wrists, hands and knee. Although the pain caused by inflammation could come and go, it should always be closely monitored and treated. Furthermore, most Lupus Patients also experience sudden muscle tissue pain, weakness and swelling.

Nervous System
Most Lupus patients experience moderate to severe type of headaches, abnormal blood vessels in the head, seizures and numerous problems in the nervous system. More so, most Lupus patients develop serious troubles with memory and concentration, severe agitation, emotional problems, and hallucinations.

The Symptoms of the Lupus Disease
The symptoms of Lupus are normally chronic, which may vary depending on the patients experience and condition (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus,  n.d.). The following are most common symptoms of lupus
Malar rash - a rash that usually look like a butterfly, which is commonly situated on the bridge of the nose and the cheeks.
Discoid rash  commonly appears on the head, arms, chest and back.
Inflammation of the joints
High Fever
Hair loss
Sudden sunlight sensitivity
Kidney dysfunction
Weight loss
Low platelet count

The Diagnostic Techniques Used to Detect Lupus
Diagnosing Lupus is not an easy task. Due to the ambiguity of the symptoms which every patient has, diagnosing Lupus became more complicated. Hence, there is no single or particular test that could completely diagnose lupus (SLE or Lupus, n.d.). Diagnostic techniques mainly include
Blood testing  Primarily set to identify certain antibodies present in most individuals with lupus.

Complement test  mainly used to identify low levels of complement in the blood related with lupus).
Blood and urine testing  specifically designed to evaluate the condition of kidney.

X-rays - a special diagnostic test that primarily utilizes invisible electromagnetic energy beams to know the condition of internal tissues, bones, and organs.

Possible Treatment for Lupus
As of the moment, there is no particular treatment that could cure Lupus (Lahita and Phillips, 2004). Specific treatment may vary depending on the physicians decision and patients condition.  The following are greatly considered in designing a treatment plan for Lupus
The age, medical history and overall health condition of the patient.

Severity of the condition
The forbearance of the patient to endure medications, therapies and procedures.
Evaluation of the specific organs that are badly affected.

In the end, treatment plans for Lupus may not be successful when guidelines and procedures are given without thorough examination of the patients case and condition (Wallace, 2008).