The Immune System

Lactobacillus is normally found in fresh meat and occurs naturally. The application of this microorganism is wide. Its biotechnological potential defines its application in production of fermented meat. Some of the genes find importance in food processing. This is achieved through change in oxygen and redox levels. The surfaces of meat have been found to be colonized by some organism by forming biofilm. Lactobacillus is found in some parts of the human body. These include the intestines, mouths, vaginas and feces. The optimum growth of this microorganism occurs between 350C and 380 C. It occurs in form of small rods. Lactobacillus is beneficial to human health and it mostly occurs in the intestines. There are different niches in which Lactobacillus is found (Mary, n.d). The human gastrointestistinal tract is one of the niches of this microorganism. There are various role of this microorganism.

It promotes health by enabling human strains. Cardiovascular disease which is widely pronounced in smokers can be prevented. Pathogen infection can be prevented by enabling competition of nutrients and niches. Inhibitory factors are produced by non pathogen such as lactobacillus to help prevent infections. Other roles include reduction of fibrinogen and LDL cholerestrol levels found in blood. It is also used in fermentation process. This fermentation involves raw materials derived from plants. Some of these materials include sauerkraut and olives. Milk and meat are other raw materials in which fermentation takes place with the aid of lactobacillus (Wilce, 2003). Lactobacillus plantarum can survive in different environments defined by different conditions. This makes it possible to study interactions and metabolic capacities in relation to the environment.

Xanthomonas is conceptually a bacteria species responsible for causing various plant diseases. It actually destabilizes the harmonic state of placement of the normal plant growth to one that is largely more unstable due to various crop diseases. Unlike the Xanthomonas however, the Lactobacillus is largely useful in anaerobic processes of both plant and animal tissues. It thus helps in the tentative release of energy for use by organisms.

Pathogens affect the survival and fitness of the hosts in which they occur. What happens between pathogens and their host is not well elaborated despite of the fact that pathogens have obvious effects on the hosts. Host and pathogen genetic interaction is not clear. Pathogens and parasites cause infections in all organisms. There is therefore the need of all the organisms to provide defensive mechanisms to prevent these infections. Host resistance can be achieved through natural selection. This depends on the frequency of attacks. There are several models which define host resistance genetics. Many organisms have been identified to have genetic variation for the case of host resistance (Baer, Singer, 2003). There are several genes which are involved in host resistance. Prevention of pathogens may be through natural conditions. This is defined by gene interaction of which the number of genes involved depends on the type of selection artificial or natural selection. Crops are defended from pathogens through gene interaction. The competition offered to plants is minimal. This is because the conditions under crops are availed is optimized. There are various models which elaborate host resistance.

There can be a specific genetic interaction occurring between a pathogen and its host. This is covered in the gene-for-gene model. Two kinds of genes are involved in this case the avirulence gene and the resistance gene. The resistance gene is found in the host while pathogen hosts the avirulence gene. The interaction of these genes creates a defense response making it impossible for development of pathogen within the host (Raja, Mustapha, 1996).  Matching of the genotype of the host and the pathogen is another model which defines host resistance. In such a case, infection may not be possible since for infection to occur there should be no matching between the host and the pathogen. Therefore, host resistance is important since it prevents pathogen infection.


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