Cloning is one of the aspects of society that has been very much talked about and has been controversial. In the previous years, fiction literature featured how authors imagine cloned beings would become part of the natural order and system of the human life. In movies the topic of cloning has been greatly explored. This contributes to the generation of a growing interest on the topic. In the field of scientific study, cloning has already been existent for years now. It has created several different concrete results regarding the studies and experimentation undertaken in the pursuit of understanding and developing clones and the cloning process especially among animals and human beings. This brings about problems as well as opportunities, the negative and the positive, which should be weighed equally in this issue. Analyzing the demand for cloning maybe useful in order to better highlight the more general issues of access to reproductive technologies (Mazzoni, 2002, p. 159). It appears that clones and cloning will become a definitive part of the human history in the years to come. It is important to know the real extent of cloning and how it can positively and negatively affect human life and history, something that this paper will explore and discuss.

Cloning  what is it
The term cloning, in general, refers to many different things. In biology, one of the major definitions of cloning is the process by which another living being is reproduced from the DNA or cells of another being, in essence, creating a replica of the original living being. As it happens in nature and unaided by human intervention, cloning is basically because of the ability of certain living beings to reproduce asexually (Dale, von Schantz, 2007, p. 25). Among other living beings like animals or even humans wherein reproduction is dependent on the sexual reproduction process, cloning is achieved through the intervention of humans and the scientific process. Presently, there are two kinds of cloning, one is molecular cloning which involves the reproduction of DNA, and the other one is cellular cloning which involves the reproduction of a cell. As an aspect of science and biotechnology, cloning is something that has been studied and made focus of the experiment by many professionals, developing the cloning technology that the world has today. The success in animal cloning triggered the experimentation on whether this will also happen to human and result to human cloning (Kramarae, Spender, 2000, p. 187).

Developments from the Earliest Beginnings until Today
The different forms of natural cloning like parthenogenesis for example, have been happening ever since the organisms capable of such action came to life. The artificial cloning of living organisms like big animals and human is something that has happened only in the recent times. By the middle of the twentieth century there were already efforts at cloning tadpoles and other aquatic animals, like the carp, a type of fish. It was cloned for the first time in China, as a result of the work of a scientist named Tong Dizhou, who works as an embryologist. Nearly two decades after Dizhous success, it was the turn of Soviet scientists to show what they were able to clone a mouse.  The history of artificial cloning and the cloning technology marked its first significant breakthrough when it was able to produce Dolly. Dolly was the first ever mammal created from the process of artificial cloning taken from an adult cell (Nottingham, 2003, p. 34). Dolly was cloned in Roslin Institute which is found in Scotland. In 1996, Dolly made headlines because she is the living proof of how several theories regarding cloning artificially was proven true. From this point, cloning of animals has greatly increased in practice with more and more scientists becoming knowledgeable in the practice of cloning. Among humans, there is the natural cloning through the process that creates twins. There is also the artificial cloning (Nottingham, 2003, p. 34).

Cloning Today
The emergence of text regarding Dolly the Sheep allowed more experimentation on artificial cloning of animals. Other successful results of the artificial cloning of animals include the successful cloning of a Rhesus Monkey at the start of the twenty first century which is credited to the practice of splitting the embryo. The following year, a gaur was cloned. This was an important step in biotechnology as well as animal conservation. This marked the possibility that extinction of animals can be prevented through the practice of cloning, like what they did with the Gaur which was already endangered. It allowed them to create the first ever endangered animal in the world that has been cloned. The same year saw the cloning of a cattle and a cat. By 2003, a rat was cloned along with a mule and a horse. In 2004 another cat was cloned, and in the following year another cattle and a dog was cloned. Just last year, there were many animals produced because of artificial cloning efforts by scientists. The list includes the water buffalo named Samrupa, a camel and a Pyrenean Ibex. These developments in animal cloning was almost free of criticism and intrigue, far from the development in human cloning which has been receiving many criticisms, particularly ethical concerns (Kramarae, Spender, 2000, p. 187).

The pursuit of cloning has moved from merely answering the query of the possibility. Today, cloning human beings are being undertaken for many different purposes. For example, scientists believe that through cloning, the body can be replaced while keeping the original brain of the donor. In other cases, the clone can be used as a source of vital organs that human beings can use in case their medical and health conditions require such practice. This removes the difficulties found in waiting for an organ donor that matches the physical and physiological qualities of the person that is in need of the donated human organ. This also removes the uncomfortable and inconvenient incidences in hospitals wherein relatives and friends of loved ones who recently died are already bombarded by the query on whether they would donate some of the vital organs and body parts of the dead person. If there are clones, persons who die are not anymore the primary source of needed body organs.

Cloning and the Future Positive and Negative Impacts
Cloning is one of the aspects of modern day science and technology that has been aggressively pursuing studies involving cloning practices and fine tuning existing theories and ideas. Cloning will soon be considered as a viable option for different important aspects of life. The main question today that professionals now face is this what is the future of cloning and what are the positive and negative aspects of this projected future There are many positive developments that can result from the practice of cloning. In animals, one of the good things can come up from the practice of cloning which involves conservation. Today, the world is burdened by the problem of animals becoming instinct because of the practices of human as well as because of other considerations like environmental conditions and mating problems. With cloning, animals can be easily reproduced and extinction should not be a problem.

Hurdling considerations on safety, the animals can also be produced through cloning to answer for particular food and dietary needs. For example, the United States through its agency the US Food and Drug Administration or the FDA has shown positive reaction to animal cloning and its practical uses. They declared in December 2006 that animals created from cloning are safe to eat as long as the processes involved in the processing of the animal into a food product follows the common safety process (Boone, Kurtz, 2008, p. 69). Today, there are many places in the world wherein there are insufficient sources of animals used for food as well as food items coming from animals because of the shortage of such animals or because the existing number of animals is not sufficient to answer the demand. With cloning, this can be addressed. More importantly, the world also has a source of animal and animal-based products in the eventuality that these animals are infected with some kind of disease that makes it an unhealthy practice for humans to consume them. Cloned animals are placed in controlled environment separate from where common livestock are bred and placed. Therefore, this makes it possible that cloned animals are safe from the threat of such disease and thus can be the source of the animal used as key food source of humans. The role of cloned animals as sources of food items for human beings maybe not that easily accepted. For example, the organization Center for Food Safety encouraged the government to move for the identification of what food came from cloned animals for safety reasons despite FDAs position on the issue.

In the aspect of cloning human beings, the positive development that can stem from this is the creation of a supply line wherein organs are already available. The main problem of the practice of cloning human beings is ethical problems - should clones of human beings be treated as a human being as well, and thus entitled to the same rights and basic privileges like that of the traditional concept of human being prior to the era of cloning. Cloning human beings can provide solutions to problems wherein there is a need for organ replacements. However, this is a very sensitive issue until now. There is no indication that the future features a world that is already lenient and more acceptable to the concept of cloning humans and using these clones as mere supply depots of organs and then disposing them when they are already useless. The concept of life, the sanctity of life and the humane treatment of what is considered as human being will remain a key aspect of the debate in whether the utilitarian aspect and purposes of the practice of human cloning are justified in the present or in the future even.

The natural life and reproductive system among select living organisms has displayed cloning and cloning-like abilities and activities. Because of man, what is now being developed is the next step which is artificial cloning. The question now is this is artificial cloning a good or bad thing Today, the world is still greatly divided in this issue. Yet, what the world sees is that there are many potential positive outcomes in the practice of cloning, as well as many issues that stem from the negative characteristics of cloning. The world of science has showed the extent of its leaps and bounds regarding the practice of cloning, how much it has progressed in the last few years and the prospects of the future regarding cloning through the developments made in cloning animals as well as human beings.


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