Oral Presentation

Despite the fact that the content of a particular presentation is of basic significance, the mode of presentation affects the general reception by the audience and can promote of hinder the impact of the information that is presented. Factors that make a presentation wonderful and interesting include the scientific content of the information, format of presentation and the manner in which a person interacts and communicates with the audience. A professional presentation should be meticulously planned and presented just like printed publications such as books and magazines. A person should make his notes brief and avoid lengthy paragraphs that may distort the flow of information.

Once a person prepares the general ideas to be presented, he should decide how to present them through a well organized talk as well as flow of points through a logical and unambiguous manner. The optimal speed of good talk is an average of a hundred words per minute and a faster speed hinders the audience ability of absorbing the information. The orator should pause at various intervals, repeat and emphasize on the critical information (Jack, 19). The opening information should be interesting and capture the attention of the audience. Successive points should be well planned and linked in a clear and concise manner.

The orator should shorten his talk by leaving out lengthy details and information, but not through elimination of words. If its of the essence that details must be presented, an individual should provide handouts that will supplement his presentation. Visual aids that are effective create a long lasting result and increase the concentration of the audience, as well as enhancing the credibility of a person. The visual support can consist of graphs, charts, pictures and drawings and the orator should maintain consistent color scheme and typeface. A study by Minnesota3M found out that an audience has a 43 more likelihood of acting on a persons message if he makes use of visual aids.

PowerPoint presentation is a form of capturing the attention of the audience and there are several functions of PowerPoint presentations with some being integrated. The most common use is in learning, marketing meetings, corporate training sessions and business meetings. PowerPoint presentations use both visual and audio elements which simplifies the understanding of information. The presentation should contain few text and maximum graphics with uniform and similar colors and font outlook (Jack, 32). Critics of PowerPoint say that it reduces complex issues into bullet form thus leaving out important details that is essential in making an informed decision. It can be easily abused where the orator starts with presenting slide shows instead of giving important points of his information.

Moreover, analysts argue that business presentations produced with PowerPoint would be better if produced without it since multiple slides limits concentration. An effective oral presentation should highlight the main points which bring out the structure of the message. The orator should support his arguments with examples and statistics for the information to be complete and concise. Moreover, one should learn to effectively manage time and support his conclusion with facts. A strong conclusion notifies the audience that the presentation is coming to an end and they will be in a position to strengthen their attention.

Organ System Evolution

For scientists, evolution is the reason different kinds of species live on Earth. This evolution gave birth to diversity of organisms comprising a given population. One of the key concepts of this theory is natural selection. In layman s term, it is the survival of the fittest. The environment in which an organism lives will favor species that have characteristics that will ensure better birth rate. A classic example of this is the industrial melanism that happened in England during the industrial revolution. Before the Industrial revolution, the typical pattern of the wing of England s peppered moth, Biston betularia, are light colored. Dark colored moths, or melanic moths, are very rare. However, the opposite happened during the Industrial revolution. In 1819, first melanic morph was seen, and in the next few years, it grew in number (University of Michigan, 2009). Very rapidly, the B. betularia in England evolve from light colored moths to melanic moths.

The reason behind this evolution of the color of wings of B. betularia in England is that the change in environment ensures the reproduction of melanic moths. Industrial wastes darkened the trees and pollute the air, thus killing the lichens. The former light color of the environment was darkened by these wastes. The light colored moths cannot blend with the color of the environment due to the contrast of their colors. Since it is a defense mechanism for escaping predators, light colored moths became easy prey. On the other hand, melanic moths became able to camouflage with the trees, hence escaping predators (ONeil, 2010). This ensured that the melanic moths can mate and multiply more rapidly. Hence, it can be said that the nature favored the evolution of melanic moths.


Cloning is one of the aspects of society that has been very much talked about and has been controversial. In the previous years, fiction literature featured how authors imagine cloned beings would become part of the natural order and system of the human life. In movies the topic of cloning has been greatly explored. This contributes to the generation of a growing interest on the topic. In the field of scientific study, cloning has already been existent for years now. It has created several different concrete results regarding the studies and experimentation undertaken in the pursuit of understanding and developing clones and the cloning process especially among animals and human beings. This brings about problems as well as opportunities, the negative and the positive, which should be weighed equally in this issue. Analyzing the demand for cloning maybe useful in order to better highlight the more general issues of access to reproductive technologies (Mazzoni, 2002, p. 159). It appears that clones and cloning will become a definitive part of the human history in the years to come. It is important to know the real extent of cloning and how it can positively and negatively affect human life and history, something that this paper will explore and discuss.

Cloning  what is it
The term cloning, in general, refers to many different things. In biology, one of the major definitions of cloning is the process by which another living being is reproduced from the DNA or cells of another being, in essence, creating a replica of the original living being. As it happens in nature and unaided by human intervention, cloning is basically because of the ability of certain living beings to reproduce asexually (Dale, von Schantz, 2007, p. 25). Among other living beings like animals or even humans wherein reproduction is dependent on the sexual reproduction process, cloning is achieved through the intervention of humans and the scientific process. Presently, there are two kinds of cloning, one is molecular cloning which involves the reproduction of DNA, and the other one is cellular cloning which involves the reproduction of a cell. As an aspect of science and biotechnology, cloning is something that has been studied and made focus of the experiment by many professionals, developing the cloning technology that the world has today. The success in animal cloning triggered the experimentation on whether this will also happen to human and result to human cloning (Kramarae, Spender, 2000, p. 187).

Developments from the Earliest Beginnings until Today
The different forms of natural cloning like parthenogenesis for example, have been happening ever since the organisms capable of such action came to life. The artificial cloning of living organisms like big animals and human is something that has happened only in the recent times. By the middle of the twentieth century there were already efforts at cloning tadpoles and other aquatic animals, like the carp, a type of fish. It was cloned for the first time in China, as a result of the work of a scientist named Tong Dizhou, who works as an embryologist. Nearly two decades after Dizhous success, it was the turn of Soviet scientists to show what they were able to clone a mouse.  The history of artificial cloning and the cloning technology marked its first significant breakthrough when it was able to produce Dolly. Dolly was the first ever mammal created from the process of artificial cloning taken from an adult cell (Nottingham, 2003, p. 34). Dolly was cloned in Roslin Institute which is found in Scotland. In 1996, Dolly made headlines because she is the living proof of how several theories regarding cloning artificially was proven true. From this point, cloning of animals has greatly increased in practice with more and more scientists becoming knowledgeable in the practice of cloning. Among humans, there is the natural cloning through the process that creates twins. There is also the artificial cloning (Nottingham, 2003, p. 34).

Cloning Today
The emergence of text regarding Dolly the Sheep allowed more experimentation on artificial cloning of animals. Other successful results of the artificial cloning of animals include the successful cloning of a Rhesus Monkey at the start of the twenty first century which is credited to the practice of splitting the embryo. The following year, a gaur was cloned. This was an important step in biotechnology as well as animal conservation. This marked the possibility that extinction of animals can be prevented through the practice of cloning, like what they did with the Gaur which was already endangered. It allowed them to create the first ever endangered animal in the world that has been cloned. The same year saw the cloning of a cattle and a cat. By 2003, a rat was cloned along with a mule and a horse. In 2004 another cat was cloned, and in the following year another cattle and a dog was cloned. Just last year, there were many animals produced because of artificial cloning efforts by scientists. The list includes the water buffalo named Samrupa, a camel and a Pyrenean Ibex. These developments in animal cloning was almost free of criticism and intrigue, far from the development in human cloning which has been receiving many criticisms, particularly ethical concerns (Kramarae, Spender, 2000, p. 187).

The pursuit of cloning has moved from merely answering the query of the possibility. Today, cloning human beings are being undertaken for many different purposes. For example, scientists believe that through cloning, the body can be replaced while keeping the original brain of the donor. In other cases, the clone can be used as a source of vital organs that human beings can use in case their medical and health conditions require such practice. This removes the difficulties found in waiting for an organ donor that matches the physical and physiological qualities of the person that is in need of the donated human organ. This also removes the uncomfortable and inconvenient incidences in hospitals wherein relatives and friends of loved ones who recently died are already bombarded by the query on whether they would donate some of the vital organs and body parts of the dead person. If there are clones, persons who die are not anymore the primary source of needed body organs.

Cloning and the Future Positive and Negative Impacts
Cloning is one of the aspects of modern day science and technology that has been aggressively pursuing studies involving cloning practices and fine tuning existing theories and ideas. Cloning will soon be considered as a viable option for different important aspects of life. The main question today that professionals now face is this what is the future of cloning and what are the positive and negative aspects of this projected future There are many positive developments that can result from the practice of cloning. In animals, one of the good things can come up from the practice of cloning which involves conservation. Today, the world is burdened by the problem of animals becoming instinct because of the practices of human as well as because of other considerations like environmental conditions and mating problems. With cloning, animals can be easily reproduced and extinction should not be a problem.

Hurdling considerations on safety, the animals can also be produced through cloning to answer for particular food and dietary needs. For example, the United States through its agency the US Food and Drug Administration or the FDA has shown positive reaction to animal cloning and its practical uses. They declared in December 2006 that animals created from cloning are safe to eat as long as the processes involved in the processing of the animal into a food product follows the common safety process (Boone, Kurtz, 2008, p. 69). Today, there are many places in the world wherein there are insufficient sources of animals used for food as well as food items coming from animals because of the shortage of such animals or because the existing number of animals is not sufficient to answer the demand. With cloning, this can be addressed. More importantly, the world also has a source of animal and animal-based products in the eventuality that these animals are infected with some kind of disease that makes it an unhealthy practice for humans to consume them. Cloned animals are placed in controlled environment separate from where common livestock are bred and placed. Therefore, this makes it possible that cloned animals are safe from the threat of such disease and thus can be the source of the animal used as key food source of humans. The role of cloned animals as sources of food items for human beings maybe not that easily accepted. For example, the organization Center for Food Safety encouraged the government to move for the identification of what food came from cloned animals for safety reasons despite FDAs position on the issue.

In the aspect of cloning human beings, the positive development that can stem from this is the creation of a supply line wherein organs are already available. The main problem of the practice of cloning human beings is ethical problems - should clones of human beings be treated as a human being as well, and thus entitled to the same rights and basic privileges like that of the traditional concept of human being prior to the era of cloning. Cloning human beings can provide solutions to problems wherein there is a need for organ replacements. However, this is a very sensitive issue until now. There is no indication that the future features a world that is already lenient and more acceptable to the concept of cloning humans and using these clones as mere supply depots of organs and then disposing them when they are already useless. The concept of life, the sanctity of life and the humane treatment of what is considered as human being will remain a key aspect of the debate in whether the utilitarian aspect and purposes of the practice of human cloning are justified in the present or in the future even.

The natural life and reproductive system among select living organisms has displayed cloning and cloning-like abilities and activities. Because of man, what is now being developed is the next step which is artificial cloning. The question now is this is artificial cloning a good or bad thing Today, the world is still greatly divided in this issue. Yet, what the world sees is that there are many potential positive outcomes in the practice of cloning, as well as many issues that stem from the negative characteristics of cloning. The world of science has showed the extent of its leaps and bounds regarding the practice of cloning, how much it has progressed in the last few years and the prospects of the future regarding cloning through the developments made in cloning animals as well as human beings.

Evaluation of an article on the neurotoxic effects of gasoline inhalation in male rats

Section 1 Description of article
Title of article Impacts of gasoline inhalation on some neurobehavioural characteristics of male rats.
Source BMC Physiology, 24 November 2009, 9 (21), p.1-10.
Author Amal A. Kinawy, Psychology department, Faculty of Arts, Cairo University, Egypt.

Section 2 Type of article
Impacts of gasoline inhalation on some neurobehavioural characteristics of male rats  is a piece of Primary literature, meaning that it describes a research project and was published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. As the content of the article presents new information based on original research, it can be also be qualified as an Original article. Furthermore, considering that the findings of this prospective study are on a health related factor, the article may also be qualified as an Investigation article.

Section 3 Summary of article
The above mentioned article is a prospective study on the effects of chronic exposure of rats to gasoline vapors. Recent abuse of gasoline (gasoline sniffing) has brought the potential toxic effects of these fumes to the attention of scientists. In 1992, it was noted that up to 110 million people are exposed to these toxic fumes while refueling their vehicles. Previous studies have suggested that unleaded gasoline may have less severe and more transient effects on the human central nervous system. The goal of the current study was to compare the toxic effects of the leaded and unleaded gasolines available on the Egyptian market on laboratory rats.

Materials  Methods
Forty-five male rats were randomly separated into three groups of fifteen. A dynamic respiration system (Haschek  Witschi, 1991, p. 78) was used to expose the rats to gasoline vapors at concentrations close to exposure levels in open air situations. The first group was exposed to 15 LC 50  of leaded gasoline vapors for 30 minutes at a time the second group was exposed to 15 LC 50 of unleaded gasoline vapors and the third group was exposed to gasoline-free air, serving as a control population. For the final 10 days of the six week experimental period, the rats were evaluated for aggressive behavior. At the end of the testing period, all rats were decapitated and their brains were excised and used to determine the concentrations of lipid peroxidation, GSH, SOD, protein, Na, K- ATPase, AchE and monoamines (norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin). All results were statistically analyzed.

Significant variations in monoamines were noted in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus andor cerebellum of rats submitted to leaded and unleaded gasoline inhalation when compared to the control group. Furthermore, a significant difference was noted between the two study groups and the control group in (AChE), Na, K-ATPase activity and total protein of the cerebral cortex. Significant differences were also noted  in the MAD, GSH and SOD cerebral cortex concentrations of rats subjected to gasoline fumes. In several situations,  the variation in physiological values between the unleaded gasoline inhalation group and the control group were significantly less important that the variations noted between the leaded gasoline group and the control group. Finally, both groups of gasoline inhaling rats displayed an increase in aggressive behavior when compared to the control group. No significant difference in aggression was noted between the leaded and unleaded groups.


In conclusion, inhalation of gasoline, be it leaded or unleaded, causes serious fluctuations in the levels of neurotransmitters in the brains of male rats. These variations are responsible for an increase in aggressive behavior.

Section 4 Relationship between article and physiology
To study the toxic effects of any substance, one must first understand the physiology of the system that is attacked by that substance. By first understanding the normal physiology, we can better determine how toxic substance interacts with the body to create pathological signs. The above described study could not have been achieved, and therefore is difficult to understand, without first understanding the actions of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin as neurotransmitters. For generations now, scientists have studied the importance of monoamines in behavioral and neurological medical conditions (Bernard, 1975, p. 1-84). It has been proven that these molecules play a fundamental role in neurophysiology by regulating many different functions such as, but not limited to behavior, mood, appetite, anxiety and sleep (cited in Kinawy, 2009, p.8). With this knowledge, the author was able to conduct a study on many neurophysiological components and the way they are affected by gasoline inhalation.

Section 5 Personal opinion of article
Impacts of gasoline inhalation on some neurobehavioural characteristics of male rats  by Kinawy is a report on a well carried out, interesting research project. The article not only taught me a lot about neurophysiology, but more importantly, introduced me to the risks of gasoline inhalation. The precise description of the laboratory techniques used combined with the extensive literary review present in the discussion made this article very convincing as to the harmful effects of gasoline. The data was impressive and well presented in eight comprehensible tables. However, table 6 was formatted differently from the other seven tables which made it more difficult to understand. Though the prospective study was well organized, it was unfortunate that the monitoring of aggressive behavior was not performed by a blinded observer. This would have increased the credibility of the results. Furthermore, the multiple variables studied did complicate the reading of the article. A table providing an overview of the toxic effects of the different components of gasoline would have been a valuable addition to this paper (Burbacher, 1993, p. 133-141) . For this reason, I would not suggest this paper to non-scientific people, even though the message of this study should interest everyone. As a final comment, I was disappointed that the author failed to discuss the medical significance of countries transferring from leaded to unleaded gasoline. A comment on the importance of this study in relation to the average human refueling at a gasoline station or at least a suggestion for further field studies would have greatly improved the interest level of the article s conclusion.

Ehlers-Dandos Syndrome

The name of this condition refers to the work of two doctors at the turn of the 20th century. It can vary from the mild to a life threatening effect depending upon the type as the title now covers 6 related closely conditions. Despite the years that have passed since it was discovered and given its name no cure has yet been discovered. It is sometimes referred to as cutis hyperelastica. It is one of a group of connective tissue disorders, all of which are genetically inherited, and which are caused by a flaw in  the process by which the body synthesises the connective tisue protein collagen.The problem may manifest itself  in all connective  tissues such as  the  skin, bone and the circulatory system or it may be restricted to  only a small number  of  isolated tissues. It is an evolving condition , as described by Tallec et al (2006). This means that it produces effects that gradually produce worse effects and sufferers often show  early signs of wear and tear with resulting  fatigue and the development  of chronic pain..  In some types  the person must inherit the mutated gene from both parents, but in other types it can be inherited from only one parent as described  by Shiel on Medicine.net. Collagen  enables tissues  to resist deformity and is present in  the skin, muscles, ligaments, arteries and veins as well as major organs such as the liver, lungs and heart.. The syndrome can vary from mild to being life-threatening.

Because there is no true remedy yet available treatment is supportive and includes close cardio vascular monitoring. The Mayo Clinic stresses the need to manage each patients individual signs and symptoms and so try to  prevent the onset of any further complications. Such treatment would include both physical therapy and pain management.

Signs and symptoms 
These reflect the various places in which collagen is to be found and are in general to do with tissue fragility. Joints are unstable and highly flexible and there may be dislocations. Osteoarthritis  may set in at a relativley early age. Club feet and flat feet are both common symptoms.

Because of the extra elasticity muscle tone may be low resulting in weakness. Myalgia is alos present in many cases.

Blood vessels can be fragile, so bruising occurs relatively easily. More seriously major blood vessels may be affected and there may be aneurisms. The skin is smooth and quite easily stretched. Wounds may scar abnormally.

The autonomic nervous system may be involved, which affects such things as the heart valves.

These are the commonest symptoms, but there may be others. There are in fact  6 major types as described by the Ehlers Dalos National Foundation and those with one type will not pass any other kind on to their children. It  is quite a rare condition,affecting on average only one person in 1500 according to research quoted by the Foundation,  and can affect  those of either gender and any ethic background.

Because of the variety  and uncurability of this condition research is relatively rare and tends to focus on a particular type. In 2005 Oderich et al published The spectrum, management and clinical outcome of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV a 30-year experience. The group  were studying those with the possibility of uterine, intestinal and arterial rupture. The rarity of this type is shown in that they were only studying a total of 31 cases over this extended period.  Their purpose was to consider the spectrum, the management and the clinical outcome in these patients. This was done be retrospectively considering all the available medical data. The results were that the condition was usually diagnosed in youth, the majority developed vascular symptoms and by the age of 60 all but 20 had vascular complications. 3 had died in hospital of hemorrhage. There were 12 deaths, all but one of which were related to vascular or graft problems. The conclusion was that the incidence of postoperative bleeding complications and late graft-related problems was significant.
Such results concerned with such a rare condition have little significance apart from for those individuals concerned, but for them it is obviously very important indeed especially of they know they can pass on the condition to their children..

Another study was carried out by Le Tallec et al in 2006. This was very limited in that only two patients were concerned. Its conclusion though is important.

Surgery may be necessary to correct dislocated joints but is often not sufficient to resolve the handicap, and physical therapy has an important place in management.

For this reason they point out how important it is that physicians are properly aware of this condition so that,  by providing education in  body mechanics and using  various devices, they are better able  prevent the possible joint dislocation and subluxations which in their turn can cause much pain and permanent handicap.

Medical Implications
Modern day treatment must be individualized and it must also be holistic. There is obviously a need for professionals from various disciplines to work together in order to achieve the best possible outcomes. A look at the variety of health professionals included in the medical advisory group of the Elhers Danos Support Group shows how widespread are the implications of having this diagnosis. Professionals from the  varied disciplines of Rheumatology, Speech Therapy, Dermatology, Physiotherapy, Vascular Surgery, Plastic Surgery and Genetics are all included. Yet at the same time this is a rare condition and many doctors will meet it only rarely if at all. It therefore cannot take a large place in any general medical training. This does not however mean that it should be totally ignored and interested groups should make sure that relevant information is readily available when required.

Public  Health  and Social Implications
All children bang themselves, run into things, fall  etc. A child with this syndrome who bruises very easily may cause teachers, social workers etc to ask questions, as they may suspect child battering as described in issue 14, Ehlers-Danlos Support Group. Despite the fact  that there is no known cure, it is therefore very important that, if the condition is suspected formal diagnosis is made using biopsy, in order to prevent accusations and family disruption.

Instabiliy of joints can make writing difficult and some children will need educational support. Children with the condition often love  to be involved in sports because they are, when  young, exceptionally mobile. This has implications for staff who may be worried that they will be blamed if a child is injured or has a dislocation. Teachers who have children in hteir care with this condition need to receive some education on the subject as well as being reassured about possible outcomes.

All types of the syndrome are obviously  rare conditions, some more so than others. This could mean that they arent considered important, but to those concerned the condition can affect many aspects of their lives.  Genetic counseling can therefore be considered as important,  yet many western countries still have no such provision  as a right e.g. Belgium, Bulgaria  and Italy are but three  examples of countries where it is not necessarily available as described on the Eurogentest web page, Harmonizing Genetic Testing Across Europe. It may perhaps be particularly difficult to access in countries where a majority faith does not allow termination.

Rarity means that many doctors have not met patients with the condition and so research is  rare. This puts the onus on those with the condition. Often they will find themselves in the position of knowing more about their condition than some of the  medical staff concerned, as is the case with other genetic connective tissue conditions such as osteo-genesis imperfeta. They need to educate themselves, to join self help groups such as the Ehlers-Dandos Support Group, and to push collectively for more research  and the freer availability of genetic testing and counselling. As has been stated this condition affects people of all classes and types  and all must be involved in  such initiatives if better diagnosis and treatment  is to become available.

Research seems to be almost entirely based upon physical symptoms,  but ethical issues also need to be considered.  Parents may feel pressurized for instance to consider termination if one or both are carriers. Potential parents who are known carriers need to consider the issues before a pregnancy is embarked upon. There needs to be expert advice available  to them in order that they can make educated decisions. Yes, some people do have conditions that are difficult to deal with, some  do die with this condition, but these are only a portion of those affected and they  could also die from many other conditions. None of this means that such  people cannot have full and fulfilled lives.

Critique on The Chamber by John Grisham

During the 1960s, America was going through many changes.  Schools were being desegregated, the Civil Rights movement was in full force, and police investigating was about to take a whole new path for finding justice.  The field of forensic science was on the brink of making its mark in the justice system.

Unfortunately, its use in law enforcement did not occur until many years later.  In the 1994 book, The Chamber, written by John Grisham the field of forensic science is brought to light in a way that is only recognized by someone studying forensics.  John Grisham makes it a point to bring out the importance of forensic science in most of his fictional writings.
In the book, The Chamber, Grisham brings to life two main characters.  The first character is Adam Hall, a young, nave, and still wet-behind-the ears attorney who is sent to southern Mississippi to represent a man on death row.  At the beginning, Hall has no idea that the man he will be representing is actually his grandfather, Sam Cayhill.  Hall stays in Mississippi with his aunt whom he has not seen in years, but nonetheless, she shows her southern hospitality by inviting him into her home.  His aunt drinks entirely too much and is referred to as a functional alcoholic (Grisham, 1994). In laymans terms, it means that if she is drinking she seems sober, but if she is without a drink, she appears drunk.  As Hall digs deeper and deeper into the case as the execution date is quickly approaching, he makes some shocking discoveries that make it difficult for him to proceed with the case.
Hall meets with Cayhill through a piece of glass in a visitation area set up for attorneys to meet with their clients.  Cayhill is in his late 60s now, moves slowly, is handcuffed and shackled, and claims to not remember many details of the event.  This leaves Hall to do much of his own grunt work in order to find out what really happened.  Additionally, it left him sorting out the details surrounding the crime on his own.  He makes a startling discovery while researching the case.  It involves the bomb that was used and murdered the Kramer twins.  This bomb was of a different caliber than usual during that era.  It was set up on a timing device to detonate at a specific time.  Hall doubted that Cayhill had that type of engineering knowledge, but he questioned Cayhill about it anyway (Grisham, 1994).

Cayhill seemed distant and uncooperative with Halls line of questioning.  Hall repeatedly reminded Cayhill that time was of the essence and there was not much of it left.  Hall already knew that this meant there was a second person involved in the bombing murder of the Kramer twins, but Cayhill would not admit to it.  Hall continued to batter his own client with questions in reference to the construction of the bomb, but failed to mention the timing device as a means of getting Cayhill to tell the truth.  Cayhill was set in his ways and refused to divulge any information surrounding the bomb (Grisham, 1994).

What seems so damning in this story is that a man was willing to die to protect the crime of another.  Cayhill was merely an accomplice to the crime, and would most likely have been given life in prison for his part therein.  In reviewing the evidence of the crime, the remnants of the bomb used to blow up the building were all that was left.  If forensic science was available during that era, it would have been easily determined that the bomb was created by someone with an engineering and mechanical ability.  Cayhill barely had a third grade education, much less the ability to build bombs with timing detonators.  Forensic science would have been able to secure the crime scene and more than likely find additional evidence such as footprints, fibers from clothing, or even hair that could have been sent to the crime lab for determination.  Still, the fact remains that the bomb used was not of the caliber of bombs made in that era.

Forensic science has collectively made the investigatory process during criminal investigations more in depth and more involved.  It takes more time to process a crime scene today than in yesteryear, but the results are accurate and precise.  As the field of forensic science expands and grows, it is continually used to re-evaluate cases that have been determined to be solved or closed.  These re-opened cases have had dramatic results and some have even been overturned resulting in immediate pardons issued by state governors.  This does not give back the lost time to the wrongly accused and convicted person, but it does stand to exonerate them and clear their name.  In the book by Grisham, the character on death row, Cayhill, could have easily given the name of the man responsible for creating and planting the bomb.  If forensic science were available back then, it would not have been relevant for Cayhill to reveal who the engineer was because their means of investigation would have been able to determine that fact.
The book, The Chamber, is divided up into four intricate parts.  The book chronicles many issues including the use of forensic science, the death penalty, social impact, and legal premise leading up to the execution of a death row inmate.  The mention of forensics is so deeply embedded in the writing, that if one is not looking for it, it can easily be overlooked.  The design and creation of the bomb is the only piece of evidence mentioned throughout the book, yet it is the only key piece of evidence.  The fact that Cayhill was an admitted Klansman during the Civil Rights movement era made it that much easier to point a finger and get a guilty verdict.  It should be mentioned that before Cayhills conviction, he was tried twice before and both juries were hung.  Cayhill had spent some twenty-five years on death row for a crime that he did not solely commit, but if one has any knowledge of the Ku Klux Klan, then it is understood why Cayhill never revealed his accomplice.  If Cayhill had revealed at any point the name of the person who masterminded the bomb design, great harm could have come to members of his family.  Halls aunt with whom he stayed with during the representation of Cayhill was also Cayhills daughter.  Even though many years had passed, Cayhill was still living in an era that no longer existed.  His thoughts and beliefs were outdated, but yet he remained true to an oath that he took to an organization of great demise and despair.
It would have been a more interesting read if Grisham had incorporated the use of a forensic psychologist to evaluate Cayhill.  For one to be able to see into the mind of a person still living in an era past would be intriguing.  It would be educational to know and understand what and how ones mind can become so twisted and racist.  The book was catching, but it would have been more enlightening if Grisham had made his character Adam Hall a little more assertive in the way of having a forensics expert examine the remnants of the bomb in evidence.  It would have provided actual proof of a second person being responsible for the detonation and design of the timing device. Suffice it to say, it is a very good book, and the use of forensics may be a little bleak, but still made for an entertaining read.  This book forces one to question his or her own beliefs as far a racism is concerned, and it forces one to demand the use of forensic science in all criminal investigations.  From the social concept, it makes society think long and hard about the death penalty despite who the criminal is on death row.  Society has become so callus to death that the evening news is more like a sitcom than something that should make everyone shudder in disbelief.  Grisham is a great writer, but he should include forensics in more of his works.

Phase Transition in Membrane Lipids Associated with Chilling Damage in higher plants

Chilling damage is a physiological defect in higher flora brought about by contact to low temperatures just above freezing point. Some crops of commercial importance are affected by temperatures below 150 Celsius. This is known as chilling injury. Crops affected include sweet potatoes, sugar cane, sorghum, potatoes and maize among others. Indications of such injury consists of partial growth of photosynthetic material, pitting of the outer layer of plant, staining and uncharacteristic ripening of the fruits as well as lack of plant protection against most fungal diseases.

According to Sharom, Willemot  Thompson (1994), broad- angle x-ray gave proof of lipid stage severance in covering of microsomes of chill-damaged tomato fruit. Fully developed fruits were kept at temperatures of five degrees Celsius and developed no symptoms of chilly injury. However, after the same fruits were placed at temperatures of twenty-five degrees Celsius, signs of typical chilly damage occurred. These signs were fully recognized after four days of exposure to room temperature. Phase change and side phase division are thought to be actions leading to chilling damage signs. Side phase division of the two layers of lipid caused leaking of the membranes. Proof for chilling damage is indicated by oozing of electrolytes, lipid phase switch at decisive degrees of hotness, electron turn reverberation and switch in lipid constitution. It is also shown by fluorescence depolarization and also by chill fracture electron microscopy which help to see tangential phase separation of lipids found in the membrane. Not long ago, decreased chilling damage has been observed in genetically modified plants with lowered fatty acid concentration.

During chilling injury, hydrophobic bonds in proteins become weak and hydrogen bonds become more stable. Thus enzymes fail to function due to interruption of regions not attracted to water, or due inactivation and establishment of new hydrogen bonds and structure stabilization as a result of strengthened hydrogen bonds. The alteration in steric orientation of proteins during freezing affects physiological processes of plants. During chilling injury, biosynthesis of adenine tri-phosphate is reduced and later, ATP depletion occurs and cells die. Generally, due to high temperatures, the plant metabolic rates are lowered and there is retarded plant growth.  

Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Response to Stress in Higher Plants
Generation of oxygen reactive species in higher plants has been attributed to stresses from living things and non-living things. A two phase oxidative explosion occurs in plant cells when a microbe which cannot infect is sensed. The organelle level and means of reactive oxygen species development is not fully understood.
Various strategies are associated with development of pathogen induced reactive oxygen species. These include different oxidizing enzymes and those which breakdown hydrogen peroxide. An origin of reactive oxygen species has been observed from tobacco epidermal cell. The correlation involving an infectious microbe reaction and respiration is supported by the fact that salicylic acid hampers adenine tri-phosphate synthesis and consumption of respiratory oxygen in tobacco cells not associated with photosynthesis.

Mitochondria act as origin of reactive oxygen species. It is suspected that mitochondria takes part in oxidative explosion in presence of avirulent pathogen. In breakdown of carbohydrates, the resulting oxygen molecule is univalently reduced in the location where respiratory oxygen species is generated. The superoxide results at stages I and III of carbohydrate metabolism process. This superoxide forms hydrogen peroxide which causes programmed cell death. To cause this, higher amounts of hydrogen peroxide are required because it is highly broken down by plant antioxidant systems. The process of cell death can be stopped by hindering protein synthesis since it requires functional cellular metabolism. Like in soybean cells, hydrogen peroxide stimulates Cys proteases which cause programmed cell death. Cys proteases lead to formation of Cytochrome C from power houses of the plants.

As noted earlier, mitochondria play a vital role in generation of reactive oxygen species. Placing Arabidopsis cells in continuous oxidative strain enhances electron transport during respiration. It causes high oxygen intake thus the formation of reactive oxygen species which intensify oxidative strain. Hydrogen peroxide induces leakage of the mitochondria and liberation of cytochrome c from inner membrane leading to lack of adenine tri-phosphate and consequential cell death. Jamming of mitochondrial permeability transition pore by use of cyclosporin A inhibits cell death.

Reactive oxygen species in plants is as a result of byproducts of several metabolic processes in various organelles of the cell. In normal conditions, these byproducts are neutralized by antioxidants found in those organelles. Plants have a well developed defense mechanism against generation of reactive oxygen species. The mechanisms control accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, formation of iron inions and superoxide.
The mechanisms include non-protein antioxidants and antioxidants which are proteins in nature. Non-protein antioxidants comprise of glutathione and vitamin C. It also includes alkaloids, flavonoids, tocopherol and carotenoids. Vitamin C and glutathione act as buffers in oxidation-reduction reactions. Plants lacking vitamin C or unusual glutathione amounts are highly sensitive to stress.

Reactive oxygen species that are protein in nature comprise of superoxide dismutase, vitamin C peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide degrading enzymes and glutathione peroxidase. Superoxide dismutase is the primary defense enzyme against reactive oxygen species. It breaks superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. Vitamin C peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, and hydrogen peroxide degrading enzymes the detoxify hydrogen peroxide. The plant genes contains information for iso-forms of superoxide dismutase and vitamin C peroxidase and are strictly aimed for chlorophyll containing organelle, the plant power houses, peroxisomes and cytoplasm.

Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease that primarily affects the lungs however, it also affects the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas.  Salt is not properly transported away from the cells, which causes the lungs, intestines, and other organs to break down.  As a result, mucus builds us and blocks the airways it traps bacteria and causes infection. It affects about 30,000 young people in the United States, predominantly white children.
The disease is very rare in Asians.  Only five patients in Korea,  one in 90,000 Asian infants in Hawaii and one in 350,000 live births in Japan have been reported.  One baby in every 2,000 births has the disease.  About one third of cystic fibrosis patients are adults.  Males are more likely to get the disease than females. Fifty percent of those that are diagnosed with cystic fibrosis will die by the age of thirty.  About 85 percent of children are diagnosed within the first five years of their lives.  The other 10 to 15 percent will be diagnosed after the age of 18.
As it has already been stated, children inherit cystic fibrosis from their parents.  Both parents must carry the gene they may or may not have the disease.  If two parents are carriers of cystic fibrosis, 50 percent of their children will be carriers, 25 percent will have the disease, and 25 percent will not be affected.  If one parent has cystic fibrosis and the other is a carrier, 50 percent of their children will have it and the other 50 percent will be carriers.  Amniocentesis is an optional prenatal test for cystic fibrosis.  Doctors examine the amniotic fluid from the fetus for abnormal genes.  Families have been shown to benefit from the screening of newborns for cystic fibrosis. They have a choice diagnosis and early detection or prevention. Today, CF newborn population screening is current in several countries  Australia, France, the UK, and almost all the states in the U.S.

Scientists used genetic markers to locate the cystic fibrosis gene.  The closer the marker sequence lies to the gene that causes CF, the more often it will be inherited along with the defective CF gene in people who have the disease.  In 1989, researchers identified the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) gene that contained 500,000 nucleotides of DNA.

CFTR belongs to a family of transmembrane proteins called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette transporters, and functions as a chloride channel in apical membranes. From there, researchers looked for certain characteristics that indicated the presence of the gene.  The CFTR gene contained mutations in cystic fibrosis patients only.  In 1990, researchers confirmed that CFTR could restore the transport of salt to cells.

There are 250,000 possible positions on the DNA chain of the cystic fibrosis gene.  The defect lies on the 508 position of the DNA strand.  Its called the delta F508 defect- the delta (d) standing for deletion, the F for the particular building-block that is missing (phenylalanine).  In total, there are 800 other gene defects that can produce cystic fibrosis. In the Israeli population, there are about five mutations of cystic fibrosis genetic screening for cystic fibrosis has been available since 1999, particularly for the Jewish population.  The screening is to find out which individuals are carriers of the disease.  In Minas Gerais, Brazil, researchers found eight CFTR gene mutations in cystic fibrosis patient through neonatal screening.  Those mutations are F508del, G542X, R1162X, N1303K, W1282X, G85E, 31201GA, and 7111GT.

The Cystic Fibrosis Neonatal Screening Program of Minas Gerais State diagnosed 111 newborn patients with cystic fibrosis through a mandatory screening program from July 2003 to April 2008.  Researchers used a PCR test to make the diagnoses.  The F508del mutation was detected in 48 percent of the cystic fibrosis chromosomes.  Researchers detected less than 6 percent each of the other seven mutations.  The chart below shows the cycle of cystic fibrosis.

Some symptoms of cystic fibrosis are recurrent cough, wheezing, phlegm production that is yellowgreen, coughing up blood, bulky, smelly stools, and pain in nasal or facial sinuses.  Currently, there is not a cure for cystic fibrosis, but there are various treatments available.  Each year, approximately 200 patients with CF, including approximately 25 children, undergo lung transplantation in the United States. Lung transplantation is currently the only definitive treatment for advanced cystic fibrosis.  The survival rate is about 55 percent for three years.  Respiratory failure is responsible for 95 percent of all cystic fibrosis-related deaths.  A lung transplant is a very serious operation both lungs are replaced.  Lung transplantation should be a last resort the patient cannot carry out daily activities like working or walking a dog.  Lung function continues to decline in spite of therapy.

There are three types of lung transplant procedures.  The first is the heart-lung transplant.  This was actually the first successful way to transplant lungs.  It was first performed in 1983.  However, it had major consequences.  It damaged the patients platelets.  This resulted in heavy, post-operative bleeding.  The patient received heparin to thin the blood.  Also, the patient was kept on a heart-lung bypass machine to maintain blood flow.

The most favored procedure is the bilateral sequential lung transplant.  Surgeons remove one diseased lung and replace it with a donor one.  The new lung starts to work immediately.  Next, surgeons replace the other lung.  There is no need for a heart-lung bypass machine.  The final procedure is living donor lobar transplants.  Patients can avoid being on a waiting list for organs. The demand for transplantable lungs is determined both by the nature of lung disease and by the policies of the waiting list. It didnt give you an idea of how severe the disease really was.  There is also competition among transplant centers for money.
Everything is also very technical and routine.  Doctors use live donors two donors are used for one transplant procedure.  The donors give up half of one lung, which decreases their total lung capacity by 20 percent, which is not noticeable with breathing.

A lung transplant is not advisable if the patient is HIV-positive, has severe malnutrition or osteoporosis, cancer, acute fungal infection or tuberculosis, hepatitis B, or other organ failure.  Also, the chest cavity must be a compatible size that enables the new lungs to fit.  As with any organ transplant, the recipients body can reject the new set of lungs.  There is also the risk of infection, hypertension, and kidney failure.

Cystic fibrosis also affects glucose metabolism.  CF-related diabetes (CFRD) has emerged as the most common comorbidity (two or more existing diseases).  It is similar to both Type I and Type II diabetes with a few differences that include respiratory infection and inflammation, malnutrition, and gastrointestinal malfunctions. It is more prevalent as patients become adult.  About 50 percent of those with CFRD have it by age 30.  It causes severe insulin deficiency.  There are also decreased survival rates for those with the disease.  Insulin therapy is best with a high-calorie, high-fat diet.

Some other treatment options are inhalers like albuterol.  Chest pounding and aerobic exercise loosen mucus there are also medicines that thin the mucus to limit infection.  In 2005, researchers engineered the parainfluenza virus (PIV) that causes the common cold to help cystic fibrosis tissues clear themselves of mucus.  PIV targeted ciliated human airway epithelial cells (HAE).  These cells make up 70 percent of the airway surface lining and express the CFTR gene.  Thus PIV combined with CFTR was able to infect 60 percent of the cystic fibrosis cells within five minutes.  This might be an effective treatment.

Doctors recommend that patients have annual flu and pneumonia vaccinations.  With the emergence of the H1N1 virus in 2009, this is now a new consideration.  In July 2009, patients at the Prince Charles Hospital Adult Cystic Fibrosis Center in Queensland, Australia were experiencing flu-like symptoms such as sore throat, headache, runny nose, and gastrointestinal symptoms.  The nursing staff took swab samples from each patient, two from the nose and one from the throat.  About 4.4 percent of them tested positive for H1N1.  Many of them were under the age of 28 years.  Those that tested positive were treated with oseltamivir for five days or hospitalized for about two days.  Those with more severe lung disease and poor nutrition had a longer hospital stay.  In spite of the pandemic, cystic fibrosis patients were able to successfully manage H1N1.

Regional cystic fibrosis centers provide conventional treatment programs.  Some of the areas of focus are nutritional and psychosocial support (genetic counseling), pancreatic enzyme replacement, treatment of respiratory tract infections, and the clearance and reduction of lower airway secretions.  Doctors can also prescribe antibiotics to slow disease progression.

Good nutrition is important for everyone, but it is especially necessary for those with cystic fibrosis. They tend to develop malnutrition since there is usually some problem with some part of the digestive system.  It is possible to develop indigestion, heartburn, nausea, and vomiting (Kepron, 56).  Malnutrition can develop through increased energy losses, decreased energy intake, and through increased energy expenditure.  Of course, there will also be a deficiency in necessary vitamins, minerals, and supplements.

Vitamin A is necessary for normal vision and normal cell growth. It is found in carrots, milk, egg yolk and leafy green vegetables. Those that are deficient in vitamin A usually experience night blindness.  Fortunately, vitamin A deficiency isnt common.  Vitamin E is prevalent in oils from fish, soybeans, corn, and sunflower.  Since its found in virtually all foods, it is hard for the body to lack in it.  If it does, it affects the nervous system.

A shortage of vitamin K typically would only be a problem for babies however, research shows that vitamin K deficiency can be a problem at any age.  In one survey, 58 of patients with cystic fibrosis had laboratory evidence of vitamin K deficiency (Durie, 935).  These patients have liver disease, pancreatic failure, or gastrointestinal problems that affect the bile acids.

The 25 hydroxyvitamin D (250 HD) level determines the degree of vitamin D insufficiency.  A level that is less than 30 ngmL is considered to be insufficient  (Anis, 1).  Patients should have their vitamin D levels checked once a year.  Studies at cystic fibrosis centers show that more than 90 percent of patients have a vitamin D deficiency (Aris, 2).  Some of the causes are reduced body fat, reduced vitamin D absorption, and reduced exposure to sunlight.  Patients that take vitamin D orally have impaired absorption because the intestines fail to absorb all fat-soluble vitamins.  The best source of vitamin D is from sunlight however, certain antibiotics cause patients to be photosensitive.  Children develop rickets as a result of vitamin D deficiency.

If cystic fibrosis patients arent getting enough vitamins from food, they can take supplements. A multivitamin that contains vitamins A, E, D, and K would work.  Patients need 5,000 to 10, 000 international units (iu) per day of vitamin A, 400 to 800 iu daily of vitamin D, 200 to 400 iu daily of vitamin E, and 2 mg daily of vitamin K.

Iron, calcium, and some fatty acids are essential.  Low iron can result in anemia this is very common.  Doctors can check the iron levels of their patients.  They can prescribe iron pills if necessary.  Lack of calcium is very common in cystic fibrosis patients since many tend to develop osteoporosis.  Having fatty acids in the diet can promote good pancreatic enzyme replacement.  Many cystic fibrosis patients have problems with their pancreas.
The increase in the energy requirements, the decrease in intake, and the greater dietary deficiencies are related to the deterioration of pulmonary function, anorexia, vomiting, pancreatic insufficiency, chronic inflammatory activity, biliary complications and intestinal complications, resulting in a loss of lean body mass and impaired immune function.  Cystic fibrosis patients need 120 to 150 percent more of the recommended daily allowances.  In 1993, the Latin-American Cystic Fibrosis Registry demonstrated that over 50 of the patients were below the 3rd percentile for weight and that 46.7 of the patients were below the same percentile in relation to height for age.

Children with cystic fibrosis need to consume enough calories to support their immune system and to promote healing and growth of their lungs.  It is suggested that children eat more and drink high-energy milk shakes as snacks.  Unfortunately, pancreatic insufficiency is common in cystic fibrosis patients.  That means that the body will not properly absorb nutrients.  Pancreatic enzyme supplements replace the natural enzymes that get trapped in the pancreas by the mucous plugs that block the pancreatic ducts.  Sleep disorders, like sleep apnea, are common in children with cystic fibrosis.  Habitual snoring is a common symptom.  It is often associated with growth failure.  Once the child has a tonsillectomy, there is improved sleep patterns, less snoring, and weight gain.

As it has already been stated, osteoporosis is common in cystic fibrosis patients.   There are also other unusual problems that are associated with cystic fibrosis such as arthritis and Hypertrophic Pulmonary Osteoarthropathy (HPOA). It causes pain around the forearms or the lower legs due to inflammation.  Patients may also develop skin rashes.  Adults with severe lung disease tend to develop HPOA and skin rashes.  The rash consists of small spots that develop below the knee.  It typically goes away without treatment.  Pneumotosis Intestinalis is a rare bowel disorder that is produced by very small pockets of air in the surface lining of the large bowel.  Nobody knows the reason that the small pockets of air appear there.  Cystic fibrosis patients may also develop kidney stones they develop more than the average person.

Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO) is common in 30 to 50 percent of cystic fibrosis patients.  Because it can affect the digestive system in a dramatic way, patients should get tested frequently.  The Hydrogen Breath test is a common means of detection.  However, Aleksandra Lisowska, Jerzy Wjtowicz, and JarosBaw Walkowiak hypothesized that cystic fibrosis patients produce more methane than hydrogen.  They studied 62 patients with cystic fibrosis ages 5 to 17 years.  They fasted overnight, and they were given oral doses of glucose in water.  The team collected breath samples at 15-minute intervals for two hours.   A positive BT was defined as fasting hydrogen e 20 ppm or fasting methane e 10 ppm or a rise of e 12 ppm hydrogen or e 6 ppm methane over baseline during the test.

About 37.1 percent of those patients had abnormal breath test results.  About 17.7 percent of cystic fibrosis patients were diagnosed with SIBO.  They proved that SIBO is common in cystic fibrosis patients, and that measuring both hydrogen and methane improves the sensitivity of the breath test.
The medium survival age for patients with cystic fibrosis is 35 or more years. In the 1950s, life expectancy was less than one year. Death occurs from pulmonary complications (e.g., pneumonia, pneumothorax, or hemotysis) or as a result of terminal chronic respiratory failure and cor pulmonale. Many people are surprised to live as long as they have with the disease.  Many are aware of the risks that are associated with having a lung transplant.  Usually, a childs condition is not so severe that he or she needs a lung transplant.  Surgeons dont perform many lung transplants for cystic fibrosis.  There are many centers in the United States that perform lung transplants there are not that many available in the United Kingdom and Canada.   The outcomes of a lung transplant depend on four factors  a) physical variables, b) the patient, c) the lung transplant and cystic fibrosis center used, d) infectious agents.

Scientists have attempted to do gene therapy on the lungs.  It is easiest to introduce gene therapy into the lungs as an aerosol solution.  Scientists can produce a normal CFTR gene artificially.  The goal is to introduce into airway cells to produce normal CFTR protein to reduce further infections and inflammation.  To do this, the gene has to act like a virus.  Viruses enter the body and take over a cells function by replicating its own genetic material.  They tried introducing the CFTR gene with an adenovirus they used an adenovirus since it commonly affects the respiratory system and causes cold-like symptoms.  The therapy worked at first, but the body has antibodies to fight off the adenovirus.

Currently, the more promising treatments for cystic fibrosis can fix the causes and not the symptoms of the disease.  As with most diseases, taking medications to treat the symptoms can sometimes have side effects that are worse than the disease itself.  The root cause of cystic fibrosis is a defective gene.  Further, there are mutations of the CFTR gene.  You can break that down to classes of mutations.  CFTR is either not synthesized (I), inadequately processed (II), not regulated (III), shows abnormal conductance (IV), has partially defective production (V), or has accelerated degradation (VI).  The first three classes are associated with pancreatic insufficiency.  The latter three are associated with a sufficient pancreas.

CFTR dysfunctions have led to new treatment options. One is Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator Replacement Pharmacotherapy.  This affects intracellular functions, like trafficking, expression, and functioning of CFTR.  It is designed to target the classes of mutations that were previously discussed.  Denufosal and Lancovutide are drugs designed to stimulate chloride channels due to a lack of secretion by CFTR.  Another possible treatment option is to use an osmotic agent like hypertonic saline to increase airway fluid.

In conclusion, there is no cure for cystic fibrosis.  Scientists are developing new treatment options that could potentially treat the causes instead of the symptoms. Over the past few years, scientists have been thinking of developing new aerosol devices for cystic fibrosis.  If parents know that they are carriers or recipients of the disease, they should have their newborns screened.  Patients should consider lung transplantation if they have sever lung disease with their quality of life deteriorating.  Cystic fibrosis patients can take supplements for vitamin and mineral deficiency.  In this 21st century, scientist should be able to make progress with this disease.

Critical Thermal Maximum

Critical thermal mass is measured by the temperature at which a given species may become unorganized in locomotion and that which will subject the animal to death. This is particularly true if the species has limited mobility and lacks the ability to seek a microhabitat of reduced thermal stress. Fish are often used to determine thermal tolerance because when they are in a temperature just slightly below critical thermal mass, they float belly up, so this temperature can be measured without killing the animal. All animals respond to a critical thermal maximum in different ways. Thermal end points are used.  Since it is generally easy with  fish, they are used in this experiment to help explain how critical thermal maximum works. This is done without harming the fish also.

The lab study done supports the belief that when fish hit critical thermal mass, they float belly up. These lab results obtained are further supported by Benfey and McCabe (1997) showing that the temperature of water affects fish that have reduced aerobic capacity and cannot get away to a cooler temperature. The increase in temperature reduces the amount of oxygen in the water as well as decreasing the hemoglobin-oxygen affinity. Galbrath, Adams,  Martin (2004) support the results of this experiment in their study of juvenile rainbow trout.  They exposed these fish to tanks of heated water and the end results were the same, the fish went belly up and temperatures were recorded.

In conclusion, this is an excellent short term study to show the  results of an animal when the temperature of its habitat is changed, especially when that animal cannot get away from the temperature change. This experiment is well suited to introduce the results of animal reaction to global temperature changes.

Bacterial and Viral infections

The human body is able to surviveagainst the potential pathogens like bacteria and virus because of its immune system developed. Human body produces antibodies to immobilize pathogens for removal from the body when they able to multiply above a level of equilibrium situation. This immune system can be disturbed by chemical toxins in the system.

Bacteria or Virus which is difficult to control   Mostly the human illness was caused by viruses and bacteria on earth. Bacteria are small single celled organisms and live in every part of earth. The disease causing bacteria are called pathogenic bacteria.

Control of bacteria The infections caused by bacteria can be recovered by using some antibiotics. Antibiotics (metabolic products of one microorganism that kill other microorganisms) stop the metabolic processes of particular bacteria .However bacteria are developing resistant strains. Human body is developing immunity to the many of diseases. Immunisation is useful to prevent many important bacterial diseases like Hemophilus influenza Type b (Hib), tetanus and whooping cough. Bacteria can be controlled by chemotherapy also. The basis for this is selective toxicity. Selective toxicity means chemical which was used will kill the intended pathogen without serious injury to the host.

Whereas virus is still smaller microorganism compared to bacteria able to reproduce in living cells only. When compared to bacteria virus are difficult to control. So in medical science most communicable diseases are viral in origin.

Control of viral infections Antibiotics are not useful to control viral infections, due to their host cell specificity. Antiviral drugs interfere with viral enzymes. Whereas antiviral drugs are available for diseases like influenza, herpes, hepatitis B and C and HIV (research is going on). For curing of hepatitis B a naturally occurring protein called interferon produced in the laboratories.  It is also possible to vaccinate many serious viral infections such as measles, mumps, hepatitis A and hepatitis B and smallpox. The control of viral infection by intracellular antiviral proteins referred to as restriction factors is becoming an important issue of infectious disease research now a day. Viral diseases are spread by coughs, sneezes, vomits, bites from infected animals or insects and exposure to infected bodily fluids through activities such as sexual intercourse or sharing hypodermic needles. So when compared to bacterial diseases viral diseases are difficult to cure.

The Immune System

Lactobacillus is normally found in fresh meat and occurs naturally. The application of this microorganism is wide. Its biotechnological potential defines its application in production of fermented meat. Some of the genes find importance in food processing. This is achieved through change in oxygen and redox levels. The surfaces of meat have been found to be colonized by some organism by forming biofilm. Lactobacillus is found in some parts of the human body. These include the intestines, mouths, vaginas and feces. The optimum growth of this microorganism occurs between 350C and 380 C. It occurs in form of small rods. Lactobacillus is beneficial to human health and it mostly occurs in the intestines. There are different niches in which Lactobacillus is found (Mary, n.d). The human gastrointestistinal tract is one of the niches of this microorganism. There are various role of this microorganism.

It promotes health by enabling human strains. Cardiovascular disease which is widely pronounced in smokers can be prevented. Pathogen infection can be prevented by enabling competition of nutrients and niches. Inhibitory factors are produced by non pathogen such as lactobacillus to help prevent infections. Other roles include reduction of fibrinogen and LDL cholerestrol levels found in blood. It is also used in fermentation process. This fermentation involves raw materials derived from plants. Some of these materials include sauerkraut and olives. Milk and meat are other raw materials in which fermentation takes place with the aid of lactobacillus (Wilce, 2003). Lactobacillus plantarum can survive in different environments defined by different conditions. This makes it possible to study interactions and metabolic capacities in relation to the environment.

Xanthomonas is conceptually a bacteria species responsible for causing various plant diseases. It actually destabilizes the harmonic state of placement of the normal plant growth to one that is largely more unstable due to various crop diseases. Unlike the Xanthomonas however, the Lactobacillus is largely useful in anaerobic processes of both plant and animal tissues. It thus helps in the tentative release of energy for use by organisms.

Pathogens affect the survival and fitness of the hosts in which they occur. What happens between pathogens and their host is not well elaborated despite of the fact that pathogens have obvious effects on the hosts. Host and pathogen genetic interaction is not clear. Pathogens and parasites cause infections in all organisms. There is therefore the need of all the organisms to provide defensive mechanisms to prevent these infections. Host resistance can be achieved through natural selection. This depends on the frequency of attacks. There are several models which define host resistance genetics. Many organisms have been identified to have genetic variation for the case of host resistance (Baer, Singer, 2003). There are several genes which are involved in host resistance. Prevention of pathogens may be through natural conditions. This is defined by gene interaction of which the number of genes involved depends on the type of selection artificial or natural selection. Crops are defended from pathogens through gene interaction. The competition offered to plants is minimal. This is because the conditions under crops are availed is optimized. There are various models which elaborate host resistance.

There can be a specific genetic interaction occurring between a pathogen and its host. This is covered in the gene-for-gene model. Two kinds of genes are involved in this case the avirulence gene and the resistance gene. The resistance gene is found in the host while pathogen hosts the avirulence gene. The interaction of these genes creates a defense response making it impossible for development of pathogen within the host (Raja, Mustapha, 1996).  Matching of the genotype of the host and the pathogen is another model which defines host resistance. In such a case, infection may not be possible since for infection to occur there should be no matching between the host and the pathogen. Therefore, host resistance is important since it prevents pathogen infection.
The three most important characteristic of an infectious disease that determine whether or not the infectious disease will be transmitted are infectivity, pathogenesis and virulence.

My justification for picking the above three characteristics are as follows
Infectivity This is the most important factor that determines if an individual will have an infection. In every individual, there is a particular dose of the pathogen that is required to be transmitted to the host before the host can be said to have an infection.  If the infecting dose is less than is required for infection, there will be no disease except for immune compromised or immune deficient individuals. The pathogen has to successfully break through the different defence mechanism of the body and multiply in the hosts system before significant infection can be present. The infectivity of a pathogen is therefore important in considering the outcome of an infection from an exposure.

Pathogenicity This is the ability of the agent to cause disease in an infected host. A lot of non-pathogenic organisms that are part of the normal flora are not capable of causing disease provided they remain at their normal site. They therefore have insignificant pathogenicity. Significant pathogenicity therefore depends on the ability of the particular pathogen to cause infection due to its spread from the original of exposure. For example, multiplication of the bacteria that are part of the normal bacteria flora of the gastrointestinal tract, skin, etc., is generally not considered an infection on the other hand, multiplication of pathogenic bacteria (e.g., Salmonella species)  even if the person is asymptomatic  is deemed an infection (Brooks, Carroll, Butel  Morse, 2007).

Virulence This is an indicator of the severity of the infection. It is otherwise a measure of the degree of pathogenicity of a pathogen. A highly virulent organism can cause infection at a relatively low dose compared to a pathogen that is less virulent. Some factors confer high virulence on some pathogens and these include the presence of capsules that inhibit phagocytosis, production of toxins that are capable of causing tissue damage etc. Capsules enable bacteria to be more virulent because the macrophages and neutrophils are unable to phagocytize the encapsulated buggers (Gladwin  Trattler, 2006). Therefore, the degree of virulence of the pathogen that an individual is exposed to is important in determining if the immune system will effectively mount an effective response against the pathogen.

The three other characteristics that I consider vital but less important to the above three are toxigenicity, resistance and antigenicity.

Toxigenicity It is not all pathogens that have to produce toxins before they can cause an infection. Organisms can act directly andor through their toxins (Boon, Colledge, Walker  Hunter, 2008). The production of toxins is mainly peculiar to bacteria (especially gram negative bacteria). Bacteria may produce two types of toxins called exotoxins and endotoxins (Todar, 2009).  Toxigenicity is therefore less important in determining infection since a lot of pathogens mediate their actions without producing toxins.

Resistance The resistance of an organism which is simply a measure of its ability to survive under adverse environmental condition is mainly important when the appropriate treatment has to be administered. The pathogen has therefore already colonised the host and caused infection. The resistance determines the kind of treatment that should be given. For example, many strains of pathogens such as bacteria, due to frequent use of a particular antibiotic develop resistance to the antibiotic. An antibiotic sensitivity test is therefore required to determine the particular antibiotics that the organism will be sensitive to.

Antigenicity Not all pathogens induce significant   production of antibodies by the humoral part of the immune system. Antigenicity is used to determine the possibility of reinfection if the host is exposed to the pathogen again. In this case, it is only if the individual is exposed to the pathogen the first time that there is a high risk of infection since the body promptly responds through the production of antibodies.

Miller Ureys Origin of Life

Primordial Soup
    The primordial soup theory is to express a hot and fresh beginning of life.  Oxygen and certain organic compounds determine the basis for environmental factors relating to evolution.  Once these are in place, the component to trigger molecular structure is the use of intense heat.  It was argued that in the beginning of the earths atmosphere the conditions were such that creation of spontaneous life came in the form of the building of amino acids in an aquatic environment.  It was felt that this was a routine occurrence and responsible for the origin of the species (Tripod, 2010). 

    In 1920s a Russian and English theorist, Oparin and Haldane conducted an experiment to confirm that the first organisms were heterotrophs, which consumed other living matter to survive.  This would change with photosynthesis, and ultimately would evolve to autotrophs by mutation (Tripod, 2010).  Back then, the experiment was scoffed at, but today it is clear that they were onto something, as it is now known that the first organisms were autotrophs.  Urey and Miller wherein they reenacted the earths early atmosphere tested this theory.  The results were affirmative in light of the ability to create molecular structures of living organisms. 

Stanley L. Miller and Harold C. Urey
    The experiment of the two theorists Urey and Miller consisted of a mixing of gases thought to be present on earths atmosphere during its primitive stages.  They used Methane, Ammonia, Water, and Hydrogen.  The experiment did not include the use of oxygen.  To this mixture, they applied an electrical current in place of lightning conditions. The experiment produced amino acids.  The equipment used to reenact the experiment is as follows
A vacuum line
Spark electrodes  high voltage
Trap for prevention of any backflow
Boiled water in a flask to collect reaction products
Used a sealed tube to collect reaction products

These were the flaws with the Miller-Urey experiment
They believed the earths atmosphere contained ammonia, water, hydrogen, and    methane.
Oxygenation was present on the earths atmosphere, evidenced by the rocks found there, and that would indicate that chemical evolution would not have been possible.
They predicted the incorrect gas mixture

The results were not as specified the amino acids did not contain protein
    Due to the resulting ineffectiveness of the experiment, and proven fact that the hypothesis assumptive nature fell through in light of the findings, theorists and scientists agreeably discredited the Miller-Urey experiment.  Theorists and scientists started looking at other answers that had a feasibility factor regarding the earths oxygenated atmosphere and chemical compounds.  In looking for an alternative answer, one that stood out clearly was that the beginning of life occurred beneath the ocean floor in a volcanic environment.

Critical Evaluations of the Experiment
Other theorists in realizing that Urey and Millers interpretation of the earths atmosphere in its early stages was pure assumption and the basis of their experiments were strictly controlled challenged the experiments findings.  Therefore, their findings were not factual as to the true nature of the creation of molecular stimuli.  It has been proven that the creation of amino acids alone do not produce the amount of proteins necessary to provide the structure needed to support life.  Most importantly, the earths atmosphere did not contain Methane or Ammonia and studies show that for most of its existence earth contained an oxidized environment.  Further experiments using electricity, ultraviolet light, heat and shock resulted in the creation of all 20 amino acids (Tripod, 2010).

The thermodynamics in light of this did not support the findings in establishing that the system becomes less and less organized over time, which means that amino acids cannot form protein spontaneously (Tripod, 2010).  The resulting factors present that this translates into the dilution of the primordial soup.  Its consistency was too weak to have generated proteins, and there was no proof of the presence of a lightning environment to trigger the concentration to make protein (Tripod, 2010).

    Theorist and scientist, Wachtershauser, offers another view or explanation of the creation of the species.  He proposes that evolution occurred as a volcanic hydrothermal eruption, which manifested into a pioneering organism.  It consisted of a mineral base with catalytic transition born of a composite structure with metal centers.  The metal centers were thought to be along the line of iron and nickel, but could also be a mix of cobalt, manganese, tungsten, and zinc (Wikipedia, 2010).  His results were taken into account as they related to the autotrophs thought to be the first originating organisms. 

    The premise of the catalytic transition was simple and was supported by the process, which is construed as the heating and pressurizing of water in a mix of dissolved volcanic gases with the heat reaching 100C. At this point, the mixture then meets metal solids, and the result is the formation of catalytic metallo-peptides (Wikipedia, 2010).  Experiments to this effect and their findings support Wachtershausers theory.    

    Wchtershuser had a main idea that metabolism in its early form came before the existence of genetics, as we know them today.  The metabolic cycle produces energy from chemical reactions that show this process is replicative.  With replication, more advanced complex compounds were formed because of this process.  Wachtershauser modeled his interpretation of metabolic structure over prebiotic function, introducing it as the Iron-Sulfer World Theory. The concept goes in alignment with the RNA world hypothesis.

    Looking at an added factor is that of the RNA World hypothesis.  It specifies that gene pools of RNA existed in the early origin of earth, yet there was not any genes consisting of DNA.  Of course, this development drove theorists on a rigid mission to discover how DNA molecules were formed.  The belief is that the RNA has the capability of not only storing molecular structure but of also having the ability to create molecular structure by causing chemical reactions.  Thus, RNA acting as an intermediate in the expression of maintenance of the genetic information is the basis of the creation of DNA (Nobel, 2010).

    The storing of gene information is the resulting chains that link ancestry in defining how far back a species originated and to what specific gene pool it originated from. Through all of this testing much has been confirmed regarding RNA and DNA principles, but still there is not definitive proof that man evolved from the ocean, as did the many species existing in the world today. 

    Chemical actions and reactions, metabolism, metals, gases and more are a basic makeup, not excluding that we are electrically stimulated into animation.  The recipe presented by the many theorists and scientists are true in representing the foundation of man, however the ability to reproduce this recipe from an earthly standpoint has not yet been 100 percent successful.

    Todays scientists are now dwelling on the fact that the recipe can be duplicated in an environment with internal factors, vs. the external reenactment of earths atmosphere.  This is seen in the breakthrough of conditions that started as producing life in a laboratory in a peach tree dish, to the creation of life as a test tube experiment, and now the most exciting breakthrough of all the creation of life by cloning (Fisher, 2008).  A direct process using the living cells of a live host, and duplicating them to reproduce this host as a living breathing identical character of the original host.

    This type of experiment has not been thoroughly studied, and a cause for caution is warranted.  This has resulted in limitations and restrictions being imposed upon scientists that negate their use of humans in replicating DNA structures.  It is hard to believe that scientists would settle for not being able to explore this type of experiment on a human scale.  As time continues to pass, and new technology appears on the horizon, it would not be a surprise to see the event of cloning as a natural practice to defeat sickness and death, as man comes into an age of settling the controversy that has long been a question of evolution.  Although humankind may not be able to confirm that man evolved from earths atmosphere, he may settle for being able to copy life as it is in its existence and to be what he believes as holding the power to determine its quality of life and its time of demise.  The finding of the research that has gone before sheds light on earths atmospheric chambers yet still does not yield conclusive evidence in the creation of man. Confirmation that other species have evolved is evident in light of their findings yet, humankinds beginnings are still hypothetical in nature. What the research has shown is how fragile is the balance of earth and the surrounding universe in regard to mankinds existence, yet and still, how powerful in combination of each other in the ability to cause mans destruction.

Cancer Gene Therapy

The replacement of a faulty or absent gene with one that functions is referred to as human gene therapy. This therapy enables the body to produce the correct protein or enzyme which in turn eliminates the causes of the disease. Gene therapy can be either germ- line or somatic cell therapy. The latter corrects a malfunctioning or absent gene through cell treatment whereas the former treats an embryo or gamete used in vitro fertilization.

Most of the earlier attempts to bolster the response of the immune system to cancer have not been successful. However with the gene therapy researchers have hinted at some success. There are a number of advantages to this therapy such as prevention of some of the serious illnesses, treatment of the gravely ill and the fact that the therapy primarily tackles the cause of the disease as opposed to its symptoms. These merits however do not blind us from the numerous shortcomings that are likely to plague the society once the gene therapy is fully adopted.

Arguments against Gene Therapy
Gene therapy is a new treatment and the long term effects on the patients have not been established. This means that a continued surveillance of the patients will be required in order to curb long- term effects. It is important that the future generation be safe otherwise it might lead to further complications. There is still too much uncertainty more so regarding germ-line therapy.  It is true more that one type of cell can be infected by a virus.  In this way both healthy and cancer cells can be infected when genes are carried in the body by viral vectors. In addition the risk of improper insertion of the new gene can cause mutations.

The germ-line gene therapy has a provision to carryout research on embryos. This research is done without the consent of the subjects. Furthermore the research is likely to hinder their offspring. It is therefore unethical for such experimentation to be done on subjects without their consent.

There are also fears that gene therapy will be an opening for researchers to try and alter some human traits that are not necessarily linked to the disease. The likely result is increased discrimination in the society. Also referred to as genetic apartheid, the trend will see to a small percentage of privileged few in the society benefiting from synthetic genes. This will further increase inequality in the society.
Again, it is very expensive to carryout a gene therapy. Already the existing therapies are rather farfetched for the common man. This new gene therapy will only be affordable for a few. There will be much pressure for governments and organizations to cater for the cost. In truth there are a number of priorities in society other than investing in the therapy. Similarly, though expensive its applicability is limited. Genetic defects are detected in a small number of live births (2). The meager resources channeled in this project might as well be invested in alternative heath programs.

The rights of subsequent generations will also be violated with the institution of the germ-line therapy. Since the therapy intentionally modifies the genetic make-up of the patients then future generation will inherit distorted genes. This process is irreversible thus a good reason to be skeptical. As pointed early the long term effects are not known yet. It is therefore a violation of their rights.
Furthermore, the medical fraternity will also face too much pressure to see to the use of the germ-line therapy for enhancement. For instance there are individuals who despite not suffering from dwarfism will want to enhance their height. As much as the hormone is important it will not be used for its intended purpose. Initially it was meant to address forms of dwarfism. It is however likely that the therapy might never be used for its intended purpose.

As much as the gene therapy has some merits there is still much research to be done in order to eliminate the risks and alleviate some of the fears. Already there are some cures for cancer. Though they have not recorded 100 per cent success, these cures should be improved on before introducing another therapy. Again, it is not proper for humans to be used as subjects of experimentation without consent. This not only exposes the society to risks but violates the rights of an individual. Further, the new gene therapy is expensive hence prudent for the money to be invested in other viable health programs. Already our contemporary society is faced with great inequalities. Introducing the therapy will mean further polarization and discrimination.

Finally, some of the process is irreversible hence the need for people to be careful before making a forward step.

Penguins and Climate Change

The word  penguin  means  fat one  in Portuguese and  White head  from the Welsh s  pen gwyn.  The term also originated from  pinguis  in Latin meaning  fat,  which was originally given to the Great Auk that was hunted down to extinction. Since the Great Auk and penguins share the same anatomy, they were mistaken as the same animal by the explorers that first saw them in the Antarctic Peninsula and thus, were given the same name ( Penguin Science  2010).

Penguins are a type of flightless birds belonging to the Sphenisciformes order that thrives in the Southern Hemisphere mainly in Antarctica (but there a few species known to be living in temperate zones such as the Galpagos penguins). Instead of having wings, which are the most distinctive characteristics of birds, penguins have paddle-like flippers and a streamlined body tapered at both ends which make them very agile in the water. When not in the sea, penguins use their short legs and tail to waddle or slide across snow on their bellies (Wolf, 2009).    Penguins are very sociable animals they like to hunt and feed in groups and stay in colonies while on land. Although penguins are known to feed on squids and fishes, their infants primarily eats krill (shrimp-like crustaceans) for sustenance until maturity where their diets can include varieties of fish, squids, and other crustaceans. During breeding seasons, penguins need land-lock, frozen, rocky areas for nesting. They usually nest in large colonies called rookeries where they sometimes amass to thousands ( Sea World Parks  2010).

    The penguins are greatly threatened by the continous rise in the world temperature, this is mainly attributed on the exponential increase of greenhouse emission in the atmosphere. For the last years, the earth surface temperature has been exponentially increasing, prompting the slow melting of the polar ice caps, the penguins  natural habitat. It has also greatly contributed to the depleting food source of the animals, resulting in starvation and death. The rapid decrease in the penguins  population can also be accounted for the lack of proper breeding and nesting grounds caused by excessive snowfall and the rise of sea water level.

    The graph below shows the increment of carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere and its forecasted increase until the year 2100, which was predominantly caused by the Industrial Revolution. Carbon dioxide is emitted in the burning of fossil fuels and it represents 80 percent of the greenhouse gases that are directly causing global warming.

On the other hand, the graph below represents the rise in temperature for the last 140 years. While the change may seem insignificant just a few degrees in the past years it is the consistent relative rise in the warming of the ocean waters that is directly responsible for the gradual deterioration of pack of ice and glaciers on the earth s ice caps.

     Krills, which get sustenance from deep sea algae found in the depths of the ice packs, are the staple food for most species of penguins. In fact, the diet of Adlie penguins, (Adlie are the most threaten by global warming because of the rapid decrease in krills population, they exclusively inhabit the Antarctic peninsula) is 99 krills. (Wolf,  2009) However, According to the World Climate Report the gradual melting of the ice caps because of global warming has led to the diminishing population of krills, since krill larvae require sea ice to survive. The acidification of sea waters also has a great impact on the proliferation of the sea algae, which are food for the krills. Since the oceans absorb a major portion of the greenhouse gases present in the atmosphere through the water cycle, carbon dioxide neutralizes the carbonate ion present in the sea water. Carbonate ion is important for the development for the outer shell (calcium base) among planktons, crabs, corals and other crustaceans . The acidification of the ocean can also cause a direct damage to the lives of penguins, it can cause poisoning which could lead to death. The continuous acidification of the ocean can be foreseen as one of the biggest threat to the survival of the penguins in the future. (Orr et al., 2005)

    Global warming also contributed to the diminishing breeding grounds for most penguins, the Emperor and Adlie penguins in particulars. The Emperor penguins need solid land-lock sea ice to rear their young until maturity or until the chicks have grown waterproof feathers. In cases where sea ice breaks before the chicks reach maturity, they are swept in the ocean where they will most likely die. Adlie penguins, on the other hand, build their nest on snow and ice free areas. However, because of excessive snowfall cause by the warm temperature (warm air can hold more moisture), it becomes nearly impossible for the penguins to find snow-free areas to lay their eggs. As a result, their reproduction becomes threatened (Wolf, 2009).

As for the penguins inhabiting the equatorial region of Galpagos Islands, desert coasts of Africa and South America, they solely depend on the movement of the cold nutrient rich sea water to bring food and sustenance. Thus, the occurrence of El Nio, a dry spell phenomenon caused by the disruption of the ocean-atmosphere system in the Tropical Pacific, prevents cold water from moving to the surface but instead forces warm water to move to river beds, and estuarine waters, which results in the starvation and death of penguins in this area. The Galpagos penguins have proven to be extremely vulnerable to starvation during El Nio events. Adults are forced to abandon their eggs and chicks to search for food, leaving their chicks to starve (Vargas, et al 2006).

    According to the year 2009 studies conducted by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), a 2C increase in the world temperature can result in the elimination of at least 50 of the colonies of the emperor penguins and 75 of the Adlie penguins colonies. If the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere continues at its current rate, it will take only 40 years to make the 2C rise in the world temperature a reality. The relative escalation of sea water temperature will result in the thinning of the ice caps and water level increase that will eliminate most of the breeding and feeding grounds for the penguins. The continuous introduction of carbon dioxide to the oceans will make their water corrosive from the surface to their depths (Bracegirdle, et al 2008). The sea ice will melt exponentially and all organism and animals dependent on this ecology will cease to exist.

    Global warming would also promote the frequency of the El Nio phenomenon that would threaten the survival of the penguins inhabiting the equatorial regions. There are also other eminent threats to the survival of penguins, the most dominant of which is industrial fishing which rapidly depletes the food supply of penguins. Other potential threats to the survival of penguins include marine pollution, human disturbance to their natural habitat, diseases, and direct harvest of eggs and birds (Wolf, 2009).
    If the current rate of global warming continous, the lives and habitants of the penguins will be greatly endangered. The topic discussed on the dimishing food supply of penguins and the effects of  the El Nio phenomenon are clear indications of the future that these magnificient animals will face if we dont change our ways. It should be the personal responsibility of each one us to make sure that we do all we can to preserve the lives the penguins. The government must also impose stricter laws on industries that contribute on the pollution of the environment.The onset of the industrial revolution marked the accelerated rate on the destruction of the environment, it is only proper that these industries must now  advocate the rehabilitation and preservation of the environment.