The term deforestation connotes transformation of forested land to permanently cleared land or to a shifting-cultivation cycle1. It involves permanent destruction of forest land by virtue of human activities such as logging and burning of trees in forested regions.

Global warming
Deforestation and destruction of rainforests have several adverse consequences, the most significant being global warming, which occurs due to increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, in turn, raising the global mean temperature. Carbon-dioxide or CO2 is the main greenhouse gas. Trees absorb CO2 reducing its concentration in the environment. Conversely, forest clearance and wood burning add to the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. Destruction of forests implies lesser trees to absorb the greenhouse gas promoting global warming. Research indicates that deforestation, biomass burning and other land use practices account for over 18 percent of enhanced radiative forces causing global warming, far outweighing the effects of carbon emissions from planes, automobiles and factories  With the extent of deforestation worldwide, its impact on global warming knows no bounds. For example, 500 million tonnes of CO2 were released into the atmosphere as a consequence of the 1987 burning of the Amazon rain forest. In another instance, the forest fires of Indonesia in 1997 consumed over a million hectares of forest land created a cloud of smog over all of Southeast Asia, from Thailand to Philippines, for over a month, in addition to their effect on global climate
In addition to the broader impact of rainforest deforestation on climate change, its most immediate effect is soil erosion.Tree roots make gaps in soil to enable rain water to move through the soil before getting absorbed. The removal of trees and use of heavy machinery for logging compacts the soil, fills the spaces diverting air and water to the roots of plants making their growth and that of new plants difficult.
Only 10 percent Amazonian soils are of high-quality, rich in nutrients and deforestation and removal of vegetation causes these soils to be washed off easily by rainwater. Increased rainwater run-off further causes compaction, sheet erosion, surface lowering and gulleying on bare and agricultural lands decreasing crop yields of annual and perennial crops like corn, maize, coffee, black peer and silvicultural plantations, among others. About 860 million tons of top soil is lost by Costa Rica annually.8 Although loss of topsoil can be made good by importing huge quantities of fertilisers, purchasing the same poses a huge monetary burden on the economy. In Ivory Coast, forested slope areas are being lost at the rate of 0.03 tons of soil per year per hectare. While cultivated slopes lose 90 tons per hectare annually, the rate for bare slopes is 138 tons per hectare. Soil degradation and erosion have posed serious concerns for environmentalists, with studies indicating a 10 percent loss in soils natural fertility in the latter half of the 21th century alone. The worst, among these losses, occurred in Europe where 17 of soil has been damaged by human activity such as mechanized farming and fallout from acid rain. In Mexico and Central America, 24 of soil is highly degraded, mostly as a consequence of deforestation.
Biodiversity refers to the variability among living, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic systems and the ecological complexes of which they are part this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.The biodiversity on our planet is the result of 3.5 billion years of evolution and manifests itself in millions of distinct biological  Rainforests provide a unique environment for the existence of biodiversity. Deforestation, however, destroys this unique environment harming plants, fauna and insect species, some of which are still not catalogued. Consequently, many plants and animal species are on the verge of extinction.
Loss of biodiversity has severe effects on mankind and the planet, such as a reduced gene pool, which in turn could be fatal to the future of humanity. Associated with loss of biodiversity is the loss of medical benefits derived from flora and fauna. For instance, the rosy periwinkle plant has helped in the production of two anti-cancer drugs.13 Majority of  the worlds medicines are made from species discovered in tropical forests, and their destruction implies loss of possible future medicines for diseases like AIDS and cancer.
Rainforests are also the source of food, shelter, nourishment, culture, recreation and relaxation, and livelihood for various indigenous and non-indigenous people and their destruction will deprive future generations of these resources. 

When rainforests are cut down or destroyed, numerous climatic consequences ensue. These climatic changes have been enlisted below.

Removal of previously moist forest soil In the absence of trees and canopy of tree leaves, exposure to sun rays results in evaporation of moisture in soil, converting moist soil into dry and cracked soil. Dry soil, in turn, reduces cloudiness over continents causing a large amount of solar radiation to reach the ground and get absorbed by it, increasing atmospheric temperature. Dramatic Increase in Temperature Extremes Trees provide shade and moderate temperature. Their absence, results in significant increases in day temperature of over 40 degrees Fahrenheit and major falls in night temperatures.
Moist Humid Region Changes to Desert Transformations of previously moist soil into dry soil, and consequently into desert sand is another climatic repercussion of deforestation. Moreover, as soil dries out, frequency of dust storms increases and soil loses agricultural and commercial value.
No Recycling of Water Deforestation diminishes recycling of water inland, reducing rainfall in the interior of continents. When rain falls on dense forested regions, about one-fourth of it runs-off into the sea while three-fourths evaporates directly or through transpiration into the atmosphere. With deforestation, the ratio is reversed, inhibiting natural recycling of rain water. 

Less Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen Exchange Rainforests play a vital role in carbon dioxide exchange process and rank second only to oceans as atmospheric sinks for the green house gas. Deforestation is responsible for over 10 percent of current greenhouse gas emissions, which trap heat in the atmosphere causing increases in global temperature. More Desertification Desertification refers to the formation of deserts in arid and semi-arid regions as a consequence of overgrazing, deforestation and climatic change.Deforestation causes run-off of rainfall and intensified soil erosion, which result in desertification. The seriousness of the problem depends on soil characteristics and topography.

Other Effects Forests are sources of clean water and air, must for human survival. Additionally, rainforests provide many aesthetic, recreational and cultural rewards. These benefits diminish as each rainforest is cut or destroyed, causing major social and economic repercussions for the entire world.
Introduction to Brazilian problem and Personal Analysis
In many tropical countries, deforestation occurs as a result of subsistence agriculture. In Brazil, however, only one third of deforestation can be attributed to subsistence cultivators while majority of deforestation results from cattle ranches and clearing of land for pasteurization for commercial and speculative interests, misguided government policies giving subsidies to cattle ranching projects, inappropriate World Bank projects, and commercial exploitation of forest resources. To prevent further destruction of forests, swift action must be taken to address the aforementioned issues. Focusing solely on the promotion of sustainable use by local people would neglect the most important forces behind deforestation in Brazil. A major hindrance to these conservation efforts is the link between deforestation and economic health of the country. In the past, heavy deforestation in 1993-98 paralleled economic growth while conservation efforts coexisted with economic slowdown. During economically turbulent times, government frequently grants subsidies and tax relaxations to ranchers and developers to expand their pasturelands and operations and undertakes colonization programs, making it profitable to convert natural forests to agricultural and pasturelands, thus, encouraging deforestation.    

Large landowners clear vast sections of the Amazon and sometimes plant it with savannah grasses for cattle pasteurization. Land may also be cleared for investment purposes, during periods of high inflation, when pasture prices exceed forest land prices, a condition again promoted by faulty government policies.
Deforestation in Brazil Studies indicate that majority of deforestation, around 60-70 percent, in Brazil is accounted for by cattle ranchers, with small farmers owing up to 100 ha of land accounting for thirty percent of this value while the other 70 percent can be attributed to large ranches containing over 1000 ha.23 Small amount of deforestation also results from subsistence agriculture of shifting farmers.
Large-scale farming or soybean farming, which usually takes place in cerrado grasslands and cleared areas, outside the main forest pays little contribution to total deforestation. Logging accounts for less than 4 percent of direct deforestation and is more closely linked with forest degradation.24 However, logging is closely correlated to future clearing for settlement and farming.

Arguments to conserve forests of the world Importance of Forests 
Forests carry a different meaning and value for different people. For some, they are a means of recreation while for others their very source of livelihood. Forests are the source of important natural resources such as timber, minerals, fresh water and medicinal plants. Over 1.6 billion people rely on ecosystem services that forests offer, including food, clothing, medicine, shelter and subsistence agriculture.25 Trees absorb carbon dioxide purifying atmospheric air and regulating world climate.
Forests are essential for life on this planet and are home to most of the worlds biodiversity and endangered species. Despite their value for every form of life, over 36 million acres of forest land is lost every year causing adverse repercussions for the environment, wildlife and people dependent on forests for their survival.
Given the value of forest to human and animal life and the extent of deforestation, it is the need of hour to manage, protect and restore the worlds forests.
To sustain life on the planet and ensure continued access to forest resources, it is essential to manage forests. World Wildlife Fund (WWF) has undertaken forest management programs to manage nearly 540 million acres of forest land in socially, environmentally and economically responsible ways.28 These initiatives aim at forest management by increasing credible certification of forests, curtailing illegal logging, couraging companies to source their forest products from well-managed forests and help communities acquire greater control over their forests.
Protect    Around 11 percent or over 1 billion of the worlds forested areas were designated as protected by 2005. These forests include forested areas of Amazon, the Congo, China, Indonesia and Russia. WWF aims to make another 185 million acres of the worlds forests protected by 2010. 30 These include a wide range of forests from mangroves to dry forests, from Peru to Madagascar. The WWF is also creating forest networks and undertaking forest landscape restoration projects to ensure proper maintenance and connection between fragmented protected areas to enhance resilience of forests, enable animals and plant life to interchange, and create a healthier, thriving ecosystem.
Despite the loss of nearly half of the worlds forest, many forested areas are still being damaged and destroyed on a regular basis. WWF has undertaken many programs to restore degraded forests to a more authentic state. Their restoration not only involves planting more trees, but also returning forests to a state where they can continue to provide products and services such as improved water quality soil stabilization access to food, medicines and raw materials and stable sources of income for local people.31 WWF has undertaken forest restoration efforts combining human benefit with biodiversity conservation at the global level in association with governments, forest industry and local communities. Massive research is also being conducted to formulate recommendations on issues like monetary investment in tree planting and forest restoration.


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