It is certainly a good idea to choose the formulation containing the inactivated virus and the CpG, because Class B oligodeoxynucleotides will help B cells mature, thereby inducing a humoral immune response this makes CpG a good adjuvant to the vaccine. As for choosing the right delivery system, clinical research has shown that intramuscular administration of flu vaccines increases amount of circulating antibodies and mucosal IgG, while intranasal administration increased amount of mucosal IgA (Stephenson et al.). IgA is an immunoglobulin found mostly in the bodys secretions and plays a large role in mucosal immunity. IgA in the blood causes Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity, where cells bound by antibodies are targeted for lysing. IgG is an immunoglobulin related to the immune systems secondary response, and protects the body by binding to and immobilizing pathogens. In addition, the study showed that the intranasal administration produced a weaker humoral response than intramuscular administration because the intranasal administration only produced a significant increase in mucosal IgA, while the intramuscular administration produced a significant increase in systemic and mucosal IgG thus I disagree with the suggestion to use intranasal administration. Additionally, use of intranasal vaccinations has been known to cause an array of side effects including vomiting and nasal inflammation.
    Additionally, we would expect that the intramuscular administration of the inactivated virus  CpG would confer the most protection, since it would stimulate systemic antibody and mucosal IgA production while this route doesnt protect much against a variety of stains of flu, it is the most effective at protecting the body against a specific strain of flu. This happens because the IgG produced by intramuscular administration provokes the bodys secondary immune response, involving the production of memory cells and specific antibodies. The specificity of this pathway limits the number of different viral strains it can effectively counter. The IgA produced by nasal administration is effective at producing inflammation and Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity, targeting cells for destruction. Thus, since it is able to bind to different types of viral strains, it can protect the body from a wider variety of viral strains.
We can determine if the intramuscular inactivated virus  CpG formulations response is protective by measuring baseline and experimental mucosal IgA and IgG through nasal secretions, and by measuring serum hemagglutination inhibition. A viral hemagglutination inhibition assay involves the agglutination of red blood cells by a virus in suspension by diluting the virus suspension and adding it to known amounts of red blood cells, the researcher can estimate the number of virus particles by looking at which dilution inhibited hemagglutination. Measuring hemagglutination inhibition in patients given either nasal administration or viral administration can help the researcher estimate the number of virus particles circulating in their blood or nasal mucous this was done in the study.
    Based on the results of the study, I would recommend giving the inactivated virus  CpG intranasally to the young, healthy, non-pregnant segment of the population because it is more effective on young people that it is on old people and it stimulates an antibody which has been shown to have a stronger immunological memory than IgG and better crossreactivity with different influenza strains however, the intranasal administration is less effective at producing a strong response to a single strain of flu virus. The intramuscular formulation would produce the highest humoral immune response because it would stimulate production of more antibodies by B cells and affect mucosal and systemic immunoglobulin production the intranasal administration only significantly affects mucosal immunoglobulin production.


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