It is certainly a good idea to choose the formulation containing the inactivated virus and the CpG, because Class B oligodeoxynucleotides will help B cells mature, thereby inducing a humoral immune response this makes CpG a good adjuvant to the vaccine. As for choosing the right delivery system, clinical research has shown that intramuscular administration of flu vaccines increases amount of circulating antibodies and mucosal IgG, while intranasal administration increased amount of mucosal IgA (Stephenson et al.). IgA is an immunoglobulin found mostly in the bodys secretions and plays a large role in mucosal immunity. IgA in the blood causes Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity, where cells bound by antibodies are targeted for lysing. IgG is an immunoglobulin related to the immune systems secondary response, and protects the body by binding to and immobilizing pathogens. In addition, the study showed that the intranasal administration produced a weaker humoral response than intramuscular administration because the intranasal administration only produced a significant increase in mucosal IgA, while the intramuscular administration produced a significant increase in systemic and mucosal IgG thus I disagree with the suggestion to use intranasal administration. Additionally, use of intranasal vaccinations has been known to cause an array of side effects including vomiting and nasal inflammation.
    Additionally, we would expect that the intramuscular administration of the inactivated virus  CpG would confer the most protection, since it would stimulate systemic antibody and mucosal IgA production while this route doesnt protect much against a variety of stains of flu, it is the most effective at protecting the body against a specific strain of flu. This happens because the IgG produced by intramuscular administration provokes the bodys secondary immune response, involving the production of memory cells and specific antibodies. The specificity of this pathway limits the number of different viral strains it can effectively counter. The IgA produced by nasal administration is effective at producing inflammation and Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity, targeting cells for destruction. Thus, since it is able to bind to different types of viral strains, it can protect the body from a wider variety of viral strains.
We can determine if the intramuscular inactivated virus  CpG formulations response is protective by measuring baseline and experimental mucosal IgA and IgG through nasal secretions, and by measuring serum hemagglutination inhibition. A viral hemagglutination inhibition assay involves the agglutination of red blood cells by a virus in suspension by diluting the virus suspension and adding it to known amounts of red blood cells, the researcher can estimate the number of virus particles by looking at which dilution inhibited hemagglutination. Measuring hemagglutination inhibition in patients given either nasal administration or viral administration can help the researcher estimate the number of virus particles circulating in their blood or nasal mucous this was done in the study.
    Based on the results of the study, I would recommend giving the inactivated virus  CpG intranasally to the young, healthy, non-pregnant segment of the population because it is more effective on young people that it is on old people and it stimulates an antibody which has been shown to have a stronger immunological memory than IgG and better crossreactivity with different influenza strains however, the intranasal administration is less effective at producing a strong response to a single strain of flu virus. The intramuscular formulation would produce the highest humoral immune response because it would stimulate production of more antibodies by B cells and affect mucosal and systemic immunoglobulin production the intranasal administration only significantly affects mucosal immunoglobulin production.

Personalized medicine

Personalized medicine is considered to be the modification of medical treatment to suit each patients individual characteristics. This does not imply that medical services and drugs are made uniquely for a particular patient but it means that it enables the classification of patients into differing subpopulations that can be identified due to their susceptibility either to a disease or treatment of a certain disease. It has always been physicians goals to adjust treatment and fit it to the specific needs and characteristics of the patients (Great Britain Parliament House of Lords Science and Technology Committee, 2009). Personalized medicine is defined by the congress of America as the application of molecular or genomic data to determine the predisposition of a person to a certain condition, to facilitate invention and clinical testing of the upcoming products and to target a more efficient way pf delivering healthcare (Rothwell, 2007). This paper will address the issue of personalized medicine and its potential impacts on the society.
In 2001, the first publication on human genome was made. Since then, there has been an increased utilization of genetic techniques in the filed of personalized medicine. Personalized medicine may be taken to be the extension of the conventional methods in treating and understanding diseases. However, it goes further than this since it has more accuracy. It involves the use of a patients variation of genes to guide treatment and the drugs that can be used in order to come up with better results. It also uses the same in order to reduce the detrimental side effects. It as well affects a patients dosage for a particular prescription because genes can be used to detect a patients absorption rate. The knowledge of a patients genetic make up can show hisher vulnerability of some conditions that have not yet occurred. This would help the patient and the doctor to come up with prevention and monitoring plans. Generally, personalized medicine implies that a patient can get the right drug which is tailor-made to their condition (Great Britain Parliament House of Lords Science and Technology Committee, 2009).
Impact of personalized medicine to the society
    It can be used to manage chronic disease in an easier way because it gives the ability to profile the expression level of metabolites, proteins, sequence of genes and the structure can help in the classification of diseases and making choice of the most appropriate drugs for the patient. This would allow easier management of complex diseases like Alzheimers, cancer and heart disease among others. These diseases are usually considered to be a healthcare systems burden due to their chronic nature (Hedgecoe, 2004). 
Development of drugs is an expensive and lengthy process. In theory, the use of pharmacogenomic data regarding the genes of the patient has an effect on the responses to drugs and therefore, it can be used to reduce the cost and time in which a certain drug is developed. It is said that it has the possibility of lowering the amount of drug failures since it would enable the researchers to give their attention to the populations of patients where safety or efficacy has a higher chance of being proved. The implication is that researchers can have more targeted clinical trials which are likely to be more successful (Great Britain Parliament House of Lords Science and Technology Committee, 2009). 
    Pharmacogenomics can help to cut on the costs in that they make the length of the clinical trials shorter. It is also said to reduce the rate of drug failure. In general, the implication is that people can now have more effective drugs that take shorter time and lower costs to be tried. Over the years, the drug companies have lost a lot of money due to the abandonment of research projects. They do this because some trials have failed and have produced negative effects. However, personalized medicine could be used because a drug can be associated with genetic tests still at the stage of clinical research. This would help in the identification of the drugs that are likely to work and those that might not work. All these would be done by the use of genetic codes. This could be useful to the drug companies that have back catalogues since these can be taken back for clinical trials whereby a more selective group could be used. This kind of revival may possibly lead to the successful utilization of older products with an identified and specified type of patients. This would save drug companies a lot of money (Hedgecoe, 2004).
    Another impact of personalized medicine is that it is likely to increase the rate at which patients comply. More patients might be willing to take their drugs for certain conditions if they are effective. It will also give patients an assurance, especially if after consuming the drugs they do not suffer from any negative side effects. This means that we would have healthier nation with fit people who are likely to contribute not only to the economy of the state but also to other aspects of their lives. The drug companies are also likely to make more money since patients will buy drugs more readily. This in itself has more implications as such drug companies are likely to expand due to the increase in their sale volumes hence profits. This further implies that there will be more job opportunities, thus reducing the rate of unemployment and the crimes that are related to idleness (Hedgecoe, 2004).
    Personalized medicine affects the insurers in that they are expensive in terms of diagnosis and individualized medication. Majority of the private companies in America do not reimburse for tests that are genetic. This means that the current health care system can not efficiently provide personalized medicine. On the other hand, due to the high expense involved in the tests, many people can not afford to have them. This implies that it is not every one who will benefit from the personalized medicine it will only benefit the few who can afford while the rest will continue to use the conventional methods of treatment (Hedgecoe, 2004). 
    The last implication is that personalized medicine is likely to cause mistrust at the workplace. The persons information which will include the genomes of the said individuals is likely to be known by more people and especially in the companies that do not respect confidentiality. This would come loaded with other problems (Rothwell, 2007). 
    Personalized medicine is likely to face some challenges as more companies practice the same. The production and the trials of the personalized medicine will definitely be very expensive. It also requires advanced technology which may not be affordable to many. This would mean that the medical researchers would have to use less people with the trial cohort and this might compromise the reliability and validity of the results. In the end, there might not be any difference between personalized medicine and the conventional methods of treating (Hedgecoe, 2004).
    The companies which are ready to produce personalized medicine may face a few regulatory challenges. The regulatory bodies would have to change their policies in order to accommodate them. Failure to do this would mean that such companies will not have commercial or economic incentives to include Pharmacogenomics within their programmes for clinical trials. This will be the end of personalized medicine (Hedgecoe, 2004). 
Personalized medicine is an issue that has brought controversy due to the cost and the other factors involved. Although people might want to use it, it is very expensive and without the support of the insurance companies, few can afford it. This means that only a few people can afford it until the pharmacological companies lower the cost of testing and the prices are reduced. The law enforcers are yet to incorporate the same into law. This means that the companies involved stand a higher chance of loss in case it is not supported by the state in which they are in. While it might have all those challenges, there is a reason to support it because it can mean and end to the terminal illnesses. This would save not only on loss to the family due to high death rates as a result of chronic disease, but also to the economy whose labor force would not be eliminated by such diseases. However, research needs to be done on the negative health implications of personalized medicine. People should be made aware of the personalized medicine and its pros and cons for them to make informed choices regarding the same.


Trypanosomiasis is sometimes referred to as the sleeping sickness disease. It is a condition believed to have been in existence in Africa for several centuries and years way before the 14th century. The causative vector or agent was discovered in the years between 1902-1903 by Sir David Bruce. The differentiation of the subspecies protozoa was therefore done in the year 1920, while the very first effective drug for treating the disease was developed in the year 1910 by Sir Kiyoshi Shiga and Paul Ehrlich (Brian, 2004). This drug was later discarded for it side effects which were believed to lead to night blindness. Since then there has been several trials for coming up with curative drugs for the disease and numerous vaccines and drugs have also been developed towards this effect. The parasite causing the disease is known as tsetse fly. It attacks the human subjects through a bite and it spreads the infectious agents to various parts of the body such as the brain and the meninges which is the covering of the brain and the spinal cord (James, 1999). The disease begins to develop slowly and the symptoms might not be that visible until at a particular stage where it proves to be fatal if not treated early.
Africa has faced enough episodes of infection by the disease in the recent history and one significant example occurred between 1896 to 1906 in the Congo basin and Uganda. There has been other instance in the 1920s around several other African countries. Apparently towards the end of the 1920s, the infection rate slowed down a bit since there were several mobile teams who were going round the countries screening subjects deemed to be at risk. However, the disease had drastically disappeared within the years 1960 1965 (John, 2000).  This state was achieved following the success of the mobile screening team which had tracked down all possible infections and responded to them appropriately. However, the team relaxed a bit after they had observed that the disease had declined. Three decades later it emerged in an endemic form in several African countries
     The fly and the parasite causing the disease are more rampant in Africa and in a very broad belt across and around the Equator. Various reports from different health organizations indicate that since 2005, major outbreaks of the disease have been observed in several African countries within the equatorial region such as the democratic republic of Congo, Sudan and Angola (Hoppe, 2001). In central Africa the disease has also been observed in various countries such as Malawi, Chad, Uganda, Tanzania, and Cote dIvoire and the disease remains to be a major public heath challenge to these populations
The Human African Trypanosomiasis exists in two forms depending on the parasite spreading the infectious agents. The first one is referred to as the Trypanosome brucei rhodesiense (T.b.r) which is more rampant across southern and eastern Africa (John, 2000). This disease causes acute infection of sleeping sickness and it represents not less than 10 of the reported cases. The signs and symptoms for this kind of a disease are easily observed and they begin to manifest themselves a few days or weeks after infection. The disease spreads so rapidly and it has a tendency of invading and attacking the central nervous system faster than any other infection.
 The second form of the disease is known as Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (T.b.g) . This form of the disease is more common around west and central Africa. It represents 90 of all the reported cases and it causes a very chronic and acute infection of the sleeping sickness disease. The symptoms are hard to detect and a person can be infected for over several months and or even years without realizing any major signs and symptoms (Jeff, 1999). Symptoms emerge later when infection has already occurred and attacked the most critical parts such as the central nervous system at a very advanced stage. Besides the two strands of the disease, there is a third one which manifests itself in 15 central and South African countries known as the American Trypanosomiasis or the Chagas disease.  The disease causing organisms for this particular form of the disease is different from the two African forms. Thats why it is referred to as the Chagas or the American Trypanosomiasis depending on its geographical location.
The disease is transmitted by the tsetse fly which is the host parasite through biting. The bite is unlike any other bite from a fly since it is distinctively painful. However, only a few of the flies carry on the infectious parasites. Once bitten by the fly, the parasite is transmitted into the body system and it enters the blood streams where it is transported into the lymphs and to the central nervous system (James, 1999). Once in the body system the flagellates of the disease causing agents reproduce themselves while in the blood streams, and any fly which bites an infected human being gets itself infected and after a period of four to six months the fly becomes capable of infecting a mass of other persons.
The tse tes fly bite is distinctively painful and it can result to the development of red sores known as chancre. However, the different types of trypanomiasis manifest or exhibit different signs and symptoms depending on the kind of infection. In the case of the east African trypanosomiasis, various symptoms do occur within three to four day after infection. These signs and symptoms include severe headache, fever, irritability, extreme tiredness swollen lymphs, aching joints and muscles (Hoppe, 2001). Body rash and weight loss are equally common. At an advanced stage, infection of the central nervous system may result to confusion, slurred speech, difficulty in talking and walking, personality changes and the like. If not treated early, at advanced stages it can be fatal and result to death.
In case of the West African trypanosomiasis, infected persons may portray or develop simple forms chancre within two to three weeks after infection or after the tsetse fly bite. Other symptoms may begin to appear several months or weeks later such as  rash, fever, severe headache, headache, joint and muscle pain, loss of concentration slurred speech and even confusion (James, 1999).  If detected early the condition can result to death several years and months after infection.
Despite the fact that the disease is too rampant in Africa, it has some favorable conditions which highly nurture its growth and spread across Africa. First and foremost, the disease targets populations residing and living alongside dense vegetations near rivers, lake sides, thick forests and vast wooded savannah plantations. However, the disease is also too rampant among the rural populations residing is agricultural areas, fishing, animal husbandry and hunting (Brian, 2004). These populations are more prone to infection than any other population since the disease causing micro organism is also hosted by animals and it can be transmitted from livestock animals to human beings. Sleeping sickness does become too rampant in areas where health care standards are poor and infection rates increase due to lack of the means to contain the spread of the disease (Hoppe, 2001). These areas include, displaced populations by war, poverty and natural calamities leaving in poor settings such as refugee camps.
Sleeping sickness poses negative effects on human populations such as negative impacts on the economy of a country and deterioration of regional and national economies. Death as a result of sleeping sickness affects and brings changes in the general demographic populations and age structure of a country and consequently it leads to negative impacts on the general supply of skilled labor to a nation just mention but a few.