Antibiotics are the drugs which are prescribed by the physician to fight against infection caused by microorganisms.Antibiotics are documented as agents to treat illnesses. But there are instances when antibiotics are specified by physicians to prevent infections.

Usually antibiotics are given prophylactically in certain medical conditions only, like when a person has transplanted heart valves or damaged heart valves. These people are more prone to develop cardiac heart valves infections even with minor surgeries ( Reese, Betts & Gumustop, 2000). This is due to the lodging of bacteria from other sites of the body through the blood stream into the abnormal/diseased heart valves during the surgical process. The physicians therefore prescribe antibiotics propylactically to people with heart valves problems who are even undergoing dental surgeries.Antibiotics are also prescribed to indivisuals who are immunocompromised especailly people who have AIDS and are also preferred in patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation therapy.Persons who are immunocompetent are also sometimes prescribed antibiotics before a major surgery like bowel surgery. People travelling to third world countries are given prophylactical antibiotics to prevent them from prevailing illnesses in the third world countries, like diarrhea.

It is recommended that it should only be the physician right to decide whther antibiotics is needed by the indivisual for the infection or not. In ordinary infections, it is not advisable to start antibiotics at all.It should be concised that the improper and excessive use of antibiotics lead to antimicrobial resistance ( Reese, Betts & Gumustop, 2000).

Overuse and development of resistance
 Antibiotics are not recommended for a normal cold, because antibiotics only work against fighting infections caused by bacteria. Viruses cause illnesses such as a soar throat cold or flu. Antibiotics do not cure infections caused by viruses and should not be taken in these cases. It is advised that a cold or the flu be allowed to run its natural course. The average cold or flu lasts up to two weeks or more. If the symptoms persist for more than four weeks then it would be wise to consult the physician. In most instances, antibiotics either kill bacteria (bacteriocidal drugs) or cause their growth to come to a halt (bacteriostatic drugs). However, in some situations, certain bacterium grows stronger than the antibiotic coverage and the drug is unable to be effective aginst them. These strains of bacteria are called “resistant,” as they are in fact resistant to antibiotics.

Usually resistance to antibiotics develops when a person has taken antibiotics either too often or improper dosages (Cunha, 2009). Another form of mistreat is by patients who insist antibiotics prescriptions from their physicians. Remarkably, many doctors concede to misguided patients who stipulate antibiotics to treat colds and other viral infections that cannot be cured by these antibiotics. Due to the malpractices, there are certain bacterias which are resistant to various antibiotics and are termed as 'multi-drug resistant.’ Though we cannot completely stop resistance from occurring, we can slow down its progress and hinder its spread.Patients and physicians must take additional care, caution and consideration while making use of the antibiotics.

Individually if there is no serious infection in the body and we don’t require antibiotics, we should not take them. Many infections are cured without antibiotics and it is not at all compulsory to use antibiotic in minor ailments. Bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant and there aren't too many new antibiotics in the pipeline (Gallagher, 2008). It is therefore strongly recommended to use antibiotics optimally in order to seize the emerging bacterial resistance. The people need to be informed that by not using the antibiotic unnecessarily, the drugs will more likely to work when it is needed at the time of serious bacterial infections.

The future of antibiotics
The future of antibiotic is desolate. There is a marked decrease in the indurty of Research and development and without extensive researches and preventive practices; the risk of resistance against antimicrobial drugs can not be addressed. The processes by which bacteria exhibit resistance to antimicrobials are usually drug inactivation or modification, alteration of target site, alteration of metabolic pathway and reduced drug accumulation.


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